DISSEMINATION DOCUMENT GRANT 020
I v*o i^-f-o
OFFICE OF LAW ENFORCES I f/f < "" GTON, D.C
THE APCO PROJECT
A NATIONAL TRAINING MANUAL AND PROCEDURAL GUIDE
FOR : i :
POLICE AND PUBLIC SAFETY RADIO COMMUNICATIONS PERSONNEL
U. S. GOVERNMENT
LEAA DISSEMINATION DOCUMENT
THE APCO PROJECT--
A NATIONAL^TRAINING MANUAL AND
PROCEDURAL GUIDE FOR POLICE AND PUBLIC
SAFETY RADIO COMMUNICATIONS PERSONNEL
Final Report submitted to
Office of Law Enforcement Assistance
United States Department of Justice
This project was supported by Grant #020 awarded by the Attorney
General under the Law Enforcement Assistance Act of 1965 to the
Associated Public-Safety Communications Officers, Inc, Persons
-^undertaking such projects under Government sponsorship are en-
couraged to express freely their professional judgement, findings,
and conclusions. Therefore, points of view or opinions stated in
this document do not necessarily represent the official position
or policy of the U.S. Department of Justice.
LDBBABT CT PITTSBURGH
The Project in Perspective
Among the many training projects supported under the Law Enforcement
Assistance Act of 1965, several have sought as their main objective to
develop or make available manuals, handbooks, films, and other curriculum
materials for law enforcement and criminal justice personnel.* In other
projects, such educational guides have been a secondary or collateral
product of the training effort.**
A prime example of LEAA assistance offered solely for developing
and disseminating a needed training tool was the Department's Grant
No. 020 awarded in April of 1966 to the Associated Public-Safety
Communications Officers, Inc. (APCO) national professional association
of police and public safety radio connnuni cat ions officers. This grant
was designed to permit completion, publication, and national dissemina-
tion to all law enforcement agencies of significant size (i.e., serving
populations of 5,000 or more) of a manual of standard operating pro-
cedures and guides for police and public safety radio systems.
* Examples are LEAA Grants No. 081 to the League of Kansas Munici-
palities (handbook for all Kansas law enforcement officers), No. 026
to the University of Pennsylvania Law School (police manuals e
legal and constitutional requirements of police work), No. 204 to
the New York State Police (instructional handbook for police on new
penal code and model operational procedures), No. 67-26 to the Federal
Bureau of Investigation (reproduction and national distribution of FBI
riot control manual), No. 086 to the American Trial Lawyers Foundation
(training films on criminal law advocacy).
** Examples are LEAA Grants No. 031 (development of state search and
seizure manuals in conjunction with prosecutor training workshops)
and No. 241 to Southern Illinois University (development of lesson
plans and curriculum tools in conjunction with correctional training
The APCO manual, end product of Grant 020, constitutes the body of
this dissemination document. It is unaccompanied by a separate project
report because the manual is, in effect, the grantee's final report.
Pages 7-11 of the manual provide some measure of project history,
organization, and purpose. As special appendices, material has been
included to (i) show how the grantee has sought to follow up and build
upon the manual's guidance through monthly training bulletins in its
professional journal, and (ii) illustrate other handbook efforts which
have received LEAA grant support.
The APCO Manual
The critical importance of radio communications to the effective
functioning of police and other public safety agencies places great
responsibility upon communications operators. Coping with crowded
frequencies and modest- -perhaps minimum equipment, operators must
work at optimum effectiveness. It is imperative that they utilize
existing facilities -efficiently and that they follow highly refined,
To assist in achieving these objectives, APCO developed the operators 1
manual which is reproduced in the following pages. Under the Law
Enforcement Assistance Act (LEAA) grant, APCO published and distributed
the manual to 12,000 police and public safety agencies during early
1967. The' LEAA grant not only supported preparation and publishing
costs of the manual and consultation on its preparation by national
experts, but also enabled the 12,000 agencies to receive it without
cost. With this original publication and distribution achieved, and
its LEM- funded commitments completed, APCO then provided and continues
to provide additional copies at net cost ($1.00 per copy).
As an indication of the manual ! s reception by law enforcement, fire-
fighting, forest conservation and other public safety agencies, APCO ! s
second printing of 3,000 copies was exhausted within two months and,
at this writing, distribution of the third printing is well under way.
The manual's value and contribution are not hard to perceive. Perhaps
of prime importance is the fact that few government entities have been
able to provide public safety radio operators with suitable training.
The manual helps to fill this void by serving both as a self-teaching
device and as a classroom aid for those agencies which do provide
training. The manual, moreover, is designed for the working operator
--this notwithstanding the difficulties in prescribing procedures to
cover the special requirements of every public safety department.
As stated in the foreword:
This manual does not list absolute and mandatory rules,
neither does it necessarily cover everything an operator
should know. It is intended rather as a basic guide for
all forms of public safety communications, especially for
those departments that are unable to provide training pro-
grams for their own operators. It may be useful as a sup-
plement for those agencies who employ their own manuals.
This manual was written by nationally recognized professionals
in their fields. The procedures they recommend are based on
experience and are drawn from those used by many public safety
agencies. The difficulties in establishing hard and fast pro-
cedures to cover the special requirements of every public
safety department in the land are recognized. There is a
need, however, for a universal influence and means which
will serve to promote the use of standard basic operating
procedures , and it is toward this end that APCO and the
Office of Law Enforcement Assistance trust that their
combined efforts will prove to be useful.
Since the text of the manual is reproduced here for reference
purposes only, it has been presented in a larger size and with a
different binding than designed by the grantee. The actual manual
is spiral bound and its size is a compact 5-1/2 x 8-1/2 inches for
convenience of operating use.
APCO's research and developmental work on this project began
in 1964. Between 1964 and 1966, APCO's Operating Procedure Committee
devoted extensive effort to preparing a manual that would meet national
needs. Increasingly, APCO officials realized that completion of the
work and proper initial distribution was beyond the organization's
current resources, a determination which led to the application for
LEAA financial support, a positive response in award of a $29,012
grant and, ultimately, the successful conclusion of the manual effort.
APCO's basic membership consists of state and local government
agencies which have communications responsibilities. It is a non-
profit organization with chapters in most areas of the nation. It
participates regularly in rule-making proceedings before the Federal
Communications Commission (FCC), works closely with the International
Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP) and that organization's
Communications Committee, and is generally active in matters relating
to police and public safety radio communications.
An unusually effective follow-up technique in the manual's
dissemination and proper utilization has been devised by APCO through
a new instructional section in the organization's monthly magazine,
The APCO Bulletin (see Appendix A). This section, "From the Operatin;
Viewpoint, 11 is based upon the manual and provides detailed explanatioi
and discussion of various recommended procedures. When the Bulletin
has fully completed its exposition of the manual in this fashion,
APCO will have provided another valuable service to law enforcement
communications personnel and have compiled a manual adjunct of partict
lar usefulness in the training classroom.
Office of Law Enforcement Assista
Preface by Office of Law Enforcement Assistance i
Text of Public Safety Communications Standard Operating
Procedure Manual 1
Appendix A- -From the Operating Point , Excerpt from The
APCO Bulletin, February 1968 (Illustrates Grantee's
Continuing Monthly Training Seminar on Manual Subjects) A-l
Appendices B through F--Title Pages and Tables of Content
of Other LEAA-Supported Training Guides and Manuals A-3
Appendix B. Manual for Police, New York State Police A-5
Appendix C. Handbook for Law Enforcement Officers,
League of Kansas Municipalities A-9
Appendix D. Prevention and Control of Mobs and Riots,
Federal Bureau of Investigation A-13
Appendix E. The Law of Arrest, Search and Seizure in
Iowa, National District Attorneys Association A-21
Appendix F. The Police Helicopter Patrol Team: Training
Manual and Flight Syllabus, Los Angeles County Sheriff's
Department A- 23
PUBLIC SAFETY COMMUNICATIONS
OPERATING PROCEDURE MANUAL
Associated Public-Safety Communications Officers, Inc., 1967
A product of Project Two of the APCO Project Series Foundation;
funded by the Office of Law Enforcement Assistance.
Reproduction of this manual is prohibited unless by previous authori-
zation of APCO, except, the items of Section 4 may be reproduced by
tax-supported public safety entities for their own use only. For in-
formation or additional copies contact Major J. Rhett McMillian, Jr.;
Administrative Assistant; Associated Public-Safety Communications
Officers, Inc.; Municipal Airport, P. O. Box 306, New Smyrna Beach,
Florida, 32069; Telephone Number: 904/428-8700.
Additional copies are available by request made on regular organi-
zation printed purchase order form, or by prepaid cash or money order
at $1.00 per copy, postpaid.
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554
February 2, 1967
IN REPLY REFER TO:
Associated Public Safety
Communications Officers, Inc.
2503 Allender Avenue
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15220
A draft copy of a manual in process of preparation by your
organization titled "Public Safety Communications Standard Operating
Procedures" has been brought to my attention. I understand that the
obviously extensive effort devoted to its preparation is made possible,
in part, through a law enforcement agency assistance program admin-
istered by the Department of Justice.
The draft has been reviewed in detail by knowledgeable
Commission staff and has received their enthusiastic approval. I
further understand that they have made several suggestions which you
have found constructive and helpful.
As you know, the Commission is vitally concerned with
achieving the most effective and efficient use of the frequencies
allocated for the many uses of radio. This is particularly true in
the vital law enforcement and other public safety fields in which
radio is so important to the protection of life and property.
An operating manual such as you have prepared is unquestionably
beneficial and can contribute greatly to efficient use of radio facili-
ties. I can speak unqualifiedly for the Commission in commending this
highly worthwhile effort on your part. We are also pleased that our
staff could be of some slight assistance in its preparation to the end
that it is an accurate reflection of the Commission's rules and regula-
tions. We will welcome the opportunity for such further similar
assistance in the future as may be desirable because of revisions in
rules and policies.
cc: Mr. Joseph M. Kittner
McKenna and Wilkinson
1705 DeSales Street
Washington, D. C. 20036
THE OPERATOR (Section 1)
TELEPHONE TECHNIQUES (Section 2)
RADIOTELEPHONE-VOICE-TECHNIQUES (Section 3) . ,
(A) Base Stations
(B) Mobile Stations
EXHIBITS (Section 4)
2400 Hour Time
Greenwich Time (ZULU)
Personal Description (John Doe)
Message Form #1
Message Form #2
Message Form #3
Complaint and Administrative Forms
THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
__., . ., . (Sections). .
What it is
What it does
Why it does it
How it does it
The "Don't" List
LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMUNICATIONS (Section 6)
CIVIL DEFENSE COMMUNICATIONS (Section 7)
The original public safety radio service was the Police Radio Service.
The rapid development of the art soon brought about the establishment
of additional public safety services: Fire, Forestry-Conservation, Spe-
cial Emergency, Highway Maintenance and State Guard. The original
police communications supervisors soon found the city fathers adding
wider and more diverse communications responsibilities to their pri-
mary functions until this trend was reversed by integration and co-
ordination of departments by means of the establishment of the Local
Government Radio Service. The police communications supervisor had
thus become the communications supervisor for various functions at
municipal, county and state levels and APCO, reflecting this consoli-
dating though founded in 1935 as a police communications organiza-
tion, became the Associated Public-Safety Communications Officers,
APCO has historically published communications operating manuals
and many of those procedures, including the famous TEN SIGNALS,
have become standards. However, the present explosive demands of a
mushrooming population with the accompanying problems caused by
increasing numbers of highways, automobiles, crimes and related needs
for public services have resulted in a rapidly expanding public safety
APCO found its limited resources rapidly becoming inadequate to
keep pace with the increasing demands for its communications services.
The advent of the Law Enforcement Assistance Act provided a means
for supplementing these efforts and in 1966 the Office of Law Enforce-
ment Assistance awarded APCO Grant #020 for the purpose of pub-
lishing this first public safety communications operating procedure
manual of national scope and character.
This manual does not list absolute and mandatory rules, neither
does it necessarily cover everything an operator should know. It is in-
tended rather as a basic guide for all forms of public safety communi-
cations, especially for those departments that are unable to provide
training programs for their own operators. It may be useful as a sup-
plement for those agencies who employ their own manuals.
This manual is specifically not an engineering text. It is concerned
only with the operation of a system after the engineering and con-
struction has been completed. Therefore, communications circuits, their
capabilities and technical methods, are not treated since these designs
are predicated upon local needs, policies, organization, etc. Neither is
this manual concerned with FCC technical maintenance requirements.
Because of the special needs of the Police radio service, which are
peculiar to interagency and interstate communications, a separate sec-
tion will be found on law enforcement procedure.
As a condition of the OLE A Grant, 12,000 copies of this manual will
be distributed free of charge to agencies throughout the nation by
means of the APCO Chapters. It is anticipated that every state or-
ganization, county sheriffs office and principal municipality (5,000 or
more population) will be provided with at least one manual. Once
this supply is exhausted additional printing of the manual will be ef-
fected at APCO expense, but in such event, the price charged therefor
will not exceed the total cost to APCO of printing, handling and dis-
tribution of the additional copies plus a reasonable charge to recoup
organizational overhead costs associated with the project.
This manual was written by nationally recognized professionals in
their fields. The procedures they recommend are based on experience
and are drawn from those used by many public safety agencies. The
difficulties in establishing hard and fast procedures to cover the special
requirements of every public safety department in the land are recog^-
nized. There is a need, however, for a universal influence and means
which will serve to promote the use of standard basic operating pro-
cedures, and it is toward this end that APCO and the Office of Law
Enforcement Assistance trust that their combined efforts will prove
to be useful.
It is recognized that the communications art stands at the thres-
hold of advanced computer techniques. The establishment of the Na-
tional Crime Information Center is just one example of the changes
that are being wrought in the communications field. It is likely that
some of the procedures recommended in this manual will be subject to
modification as experience with the new systems accumulates. The
changes in procedure that may be dictated by these new techniques
will be the products of time and experience. This manual fills a pre-
sent need, will do its part in influencing proposed new methods, and
future editions of this manual may be modified accordingly as uni-
versal agreement may indicate.
Major J. Rhett McMillian, Jr. President
APCO 1965-66. Chief, Communications
Division, Florida Game and Fresh Water
Fish Commission, New Smyrna Beach
Captain Joseph T. Marshall, Communications
Officer, Virginia State Police, Richmond,
Past President, APCO; Chairman, IACP
Fiscal, Printing &
William M. Gamble, Superintendent of
Bureau of Communications, Department of
Public Safety, City of Pittsburgh,
Secretary, Past President, APCO
Chairman: R. J. Evans, Communications
Supervisor, Michigan State Police,
Past President, APCO
Capt. George Bundek, Communications Officer
Delaware State Police, Dover
I. Otto Rhoades, Superintendent of Operations,
Division of Radio, Illinois State Police,
President Elect, APCO
Chairman: Captain Frank D. Campbell,
Communications Officer, City of Indianapolis,
Past President, APCO
Capt. William L. Miller, Communications
Officer, Police Department, City of
Capt. Howard P. Black, Communications
Officer, Police Department, Mobile, Alabama.
Past Secretary, President, APCO
Anthony J. Gain, Chief, Electronics Division
City of Los Angeles, California
Chairman: Jonnan I. Koski, Communications
Supervisor, City of Fort Worth, Texas.
Sanford Smith, Municipal Engineer
Greensboro, North Carolina.
William Whiting, Director of
Communications, Kern County,
Past President, APCO, IMSA
Chairman: Harold J. McGinnis, Communications
Engineer, Wisconsin Conservation Department,
Past President, FCCA
Fred Waters, Radio Engineer
Arkansas State Forestry Commission
Little Rock, Arkansas
Past President, FCCA
Highway Maintenance Chairman: Bernard Flood, Communications
Committee: Engineer, Arizona Highway Department,
Robert W. Grafe, Radio Communications
Supervisor, Florida State Road Department,
Willis M. Green, Radio Engineer
Michigan Department of Highways,
Chairman: Pauline Dickson
Department of Public Safety
St. Albans, West Virginia
This manual is primarily intended to furnish a basic operating guide
to those persons inexperienced in the fundamentals of proper communi-
cations procedure, and, to provide a reference manual for the veteran
operator and for those whose responsibilities include that of the train-
ing of others.
It is intended that the operator learn that his communications sys-
tem is a powerful separate force that must be handled so as to provide
a useful and immediately responsive service to his department. The
operator must learn that in law enforcement work in particular his
communications system is an added weapon to his department and
that as such it should be used when necessary and that otherwise it
should be left alone.
A radio system utilizes one of the nation's most valuable natural
resources, the radio frequency spectrum. The right to use this resource
can be jeopardized by ignorance of the Rules and Regulations of the
Federal Communications Commission.
The business of public safety communications, regardless of the spe-
cific service, involves some interchange of communications between
services for coordination of action on problems affecting more than one
agency. For reasons of expedience or economy it is not uncommon for
one service to perform dispatching for several other services. Further,
many services are frequently required to some extent to coordinate
with Federal agencies which have similar responsibilities.
For these reasons it is almost mandatory that a common standard
operating procedure be used by all services to promote more efficient
communications, with the following benefits:
A. Ease of understanding
B. Elimination of errors
C. Minimum communication time
D. Development of a professional manner
E. Interservice cooperation
Section I The Operator
Heritage and Responsibility:
1-1 The terms dispatcher, operator, and communicator are synon-
ymous and normally refer to persons operating base or fixed
1.2 There are few positions in the Public-Safety Services which
are subject to more continuous scrutiny than is that of a dis-
patcher, or where a higher standard of performance must be the
rule rather than the exception.
1.3 Superior performance arises from devotion to duty and the
determination to fulfill assigned responsibility. The spirit of
"the Message to Garcia" still lives in public safety communica-
1.4 A good dispatcher must accept the responsibility to fulfill the
requirements of his position. This includes the prompt, accurate,
and courteous handling of message traffic in a professional man-
ner so as to be of utmost assistance to the police officer, fireman,
ranger, highway or public works officer or whomever the com-
munication system was designed to serve.
1.5 The dispatcher will be only as effective as his own initiative
and sense of responsibility may dictate, and neither the material
in this manual nor that in any other will compensate for care-
lessness, lack of sincere effort, dishonesty, or disregard of estab-
He can be, by his own choice and action, an example of all that
is good in public safety communications, admired and respected
throughout the service, or he can be, again only by his own
choice, a discredit to his service and to his superiors through dis-
regard of his responsibilities. But in the latter instance, not for
1.6 Whichever he is, he will be an example, either good or bad,
because of his position. Mobile unit operators, however poor their
procedure, are rarely heard by anyone other than their own dis-
patchers or a limited number of their own mobile stations. The
base station operator, on the other hand, is heard by all of his
own mobile stations and he is in frequent contact with other base
or fixed stations and services, often through several different
communications media. He is the point of contact through which
most information is received or disseminated and to all with
whom he is in contact he represents his department.
1.7 He can do more by example in training mobile operators than
any classroom session. His procedure, good or bad, will be emu-
lated unconsciously. His position is one of control and he is ex-
pected to promote an orderly and legal operating procedure.
1.8 In extreme emergencies or disaster, when traffic mushrooms
due to auxiliary personnel and the requirements of interservice
coordination, when emotion mounts high, and when success
seems impossible, the cases are legion where a calm, courteous
and alert dispatcher has brought order out of chaos simply by
analyzing the message traffic he hears and suggesting the best
application of the resources which he knows to be available.
1.9 The dispatcher must know the capabilities and limitations of
the communication systems that he is authorized to operate.
He must be familiar with the administrative organization of his
department so as to be able to route traffic properly, and be
knowledgeable of the equipment and resources available to his
department for the process of their duties, both regular and
emergency. He must be familiar with the organization and com-
munications capabilities of cooperating agencies and with the
rules and regulations of the Federal Communications Commis-
sion which are applicable.
1-10 Basic Qualifications Summary:
a. Ability to speak clearly and distinctly at all times.
b. Ability to reduce rambling and disconnected material in-
to concise and accurate messages.
c. Ability to think and act promptly in emergencies.
d. Ability to analyze a situation accurately and to take or
suggest an effective course of action.
e. Thorough understanding of the capabilities of his own
communications system and a working knowledge of co-
operators' systems. *
f. Adequate understanding of the technical operation of his
W lntelligent rep rting of
U1 ^dio Operator License Requirements:
It is the responsibility of the state, county, or municipal agen-
cy holding the radio station license to assure that the system is
operated in accordance with Federal Communications Commis-
sion Rules and Regulations. While no operator's license is re-
quired for most dispatching duties, the FCC nevertheless re-
quires that any person operating a radio transmitter be familiar
with its Rules. A copy of the FCC Rules should be on file at each
1.12 The Mobile Unit Operator:
This manual has the base station operator as its primary con-
cern. However, there is a separate Section on mobile unit tech-
niques (Section B3). It is recommended that the mobile unit
operator become familiar with all Sections of this manual since
it is not uncommon for the mobile unit operator to occasionally
fill in at the base station operating position. Of more importance
is the fact that, when the mobile unit operator is more aware of
the problems of a base station operator, a mobile unit operator
becomes a more intelligent user of the system channel and is
thereby capable of making a major contribution to the operating
efficiency of the system.
Section 2 Telephone Techniques
2.1 It may seem strange to the uninitiated to find .a section on
telephone technique in the forefront of a manual on public safe-
ty communications. If so, it serves to indicate how much a part
of our everyday lives the commonplace telephone has become.
It is because of this public dependance on a household instru-
ment that the public safety operator must be more aware of the
2.2 The telephone is the most available and, therefore, the most
important means of access the citizen has of obtaining the serv-
ices of a public safety department. It is the primary LINK be-
tween professional and nonprofessional communications.
2.3 The telephone is the fundamental method of communications
within a department and is the chief means of informal or un-
formed messages between departments.
2.4 When you lift the receiver of your telephone you are about to
meet someone, to engage in a conversation as important as a
face-to-face visit, and YOU are the department.
2.5 ANSWER PROMPTLY. Treat each call as an emergency.
Place yourself in the place of one who may be ill or suffering
from fear or panic. Every ring for that- person is an eternity. Try
to answer within three rings.
2.6 IDENTIFY YOURSELF AND YOUR DEPARTMENT. This
insures the caller he has placed his call properly and calms the
party who may require assistance.
2.7 SPEAK DIRECTLY INTO THE MOUTHPIECE. This in-
sures that you will be properly understood and will not waste
time repeating information. Speak UP! Don't swallow your
2.8 OBSERVE TELEPHONE COURTESY. A calm, competent,
decisive voice that is courteous will never antagonize the caller.
2.9 TAKE CHARGE of the conversation. After the initial ex-
change, and you sense the need of the calling party, cut off su-
perfluous wordage by leading the call into meaningful context
by asking questions as to who, what, where, when. Be courteous
2.10 TAKE ALL INFORMATION. Write it down. Never leave any-
thing to memory.
2.11 EXPLAIN WAITS. Explain why it will take time to check for
information and that you will call back. A party waiting on a
"dead phone" may become irritable and uncooperative.
2.12 AVOID JARGON or slang. Use good English.
2.13 SHOW INTEREST in the person's call. The person calling
has or needs information and to him it is important.
2.14 USE CALLER'S NAME when possible; it makes him feel you
have a personal interest in his call.
2.15 Try to visualize the caller. The telephone is an impersonal
thing and we may tend to be curt, less courteous or lose our tem-
per easier than if we were meeting the party in person.
2.16 Make sure the information gets to the proper person; never
give the caller misinformation, never guess, but refer them to the
proper party if it means transferring the call. If requested in-
formation is not immediately available, obtain name and number
and return call.
2.17 Advise when you leave your telephone. Let your co-workers
know of your whereabouts when leaving your position.
2.18 Place and receive your own calls, this provides far better har-
mony with the citizen than letting someone else do the calling.
2.19 List frequently called numbers. Place such numbers as well as
all other important numbers within view of the operating
2.20 DO NOT SAY "Who's calling?" You will receive a better re-
sponse, without a feeling of "It's none of your business," if you
simply say "May I tell Mr. - who called?"
2.21 Transfer calls only when necessary, and when necessary tell
the caller what you are going to do.
2.22 Terminate calls positively and courteously.
Section 3 Radiotelephone Voice Techniques
i!Si? : ^..^a^i2
BASE STATION TECHNIQUES
A3.1 The Public Safety voice (radiotelephone) radio base station
is licensed primarily to intercommunicate with its mobile radio
units and is secondarily licensed to intercommunicate with other
public safety base stations.
A3.2 The purpose of a public safety radio system is to dispatch
messages and related information pertaining only to the official
business of its licensed public safety organization (known to the
Federal Communications Commission as the "user" or licensee );
to and between its mobile units.
A3.3 The mobile units (stations) of a licensee, whether or not li-
cejised separately from a base station, are under the control of
its related manned base station.
A3.4 The statements in the above items should cause the base sta-
tion operator to be urgently aware of the basic importance of
his position, and to know that the proper discharge of his duties
can only be accomplished by monitoring his position. An opera-
tor must operate, no more no less.
A3.5 The foundation of a good operator rests upon reliability and
promptness. The simplicity of this statement is disarming; when
put into practice only an experienced operator can meet the
rigid demands of "reliability and promptness."
A3.6 Reliability should never be sacrificed for speed, yet speed is of
equal importance. Learning and applying the techniques in this
manual will help to equalize speed and reliability.
A3.7 An operator is governed by the rules of his department as well
as by the rules of the Federal Communications Commission. A
public safety employed operator is not normally required (above
25Mh/z) to be licensed by the FCC, and if not licensed, he must
understand that his department is responsible to the FCC for
his communications activities. If a restricted operator permit is
desired, an FCC Form No. 753 must be filled out and sent to the
Federal Communications Commission in Gettysburg, Pa. 17327.
Application forms are available from the same address and from
the FCC Field Office in your area. A two dollar fee must ac-
company the application.
A3.8 An operator, whether or not licensed, has the right to protect
himself concerning his communications activities. In so doing
he has the duty to advise his supervisor of any message he has
been requested to dispatch or of any act he has been requested
to perform, which, in his considered opinion, may reasonably
cause a violation of the Rules and Regulations of the Federal
Communications Commission. Such advice should be preoffered
with the tact and respect due a supervisor.
A3.9 If, in such an instance as that noted in (3.8) above, the oper-
ator is again requested to perform the reported upon act by his
so advised supervisor then the operator should immediately per-
form that act, and, should enter his pertinent and relative com-
ments in the station log.
A3.10 The licensee is required to have full and exclusive control at
all times of the system equipment for which he is licensed. The
licensee has the right to govern who may or may not open cabi-
nets or equipment rooms.
A3.ll An inspector of the FCC has the right to inspect the licensee's
equipment and the station logs and records at any reasonable
hour. You should request any person representing himself as an
FCC Inspector to show his credentials before making your re-
cords and premises available.
A3.12 The operating position should be the depository of the keys to
all transmitter cabinets and rooms, including those at remote
sites. The keys should be tagged or otherwise identified.
A3. 13 Do not accept any statement or report as necessarily true.
Various persons usually will submit different versions of the
same complaint or happening.
A3. 14 Do not jump to conclusions with the information given. Stick
to the facts. Do everything possible to obtain and furnish in-
formation which will assist someone else to solve a matter or
cause an appropriate act.
A3.15 Operators should be familiar with the Rules and Regulations
of the FCC which govern the operation of a radio station in the
public safety radio services. (See Sec. 5)
A3.16 A LOG is the station record required by the FCC The log is
kept in written form.. (See Sec. 4) Use pen and ink or typewriter.
A department may require certain entries in addition to those
required by the FCC. (See Section 5)
A3.17 The operator must sign on the station log when reporting for
duty and sign off when relieved. NAME AND INITIALS must
be shown, not just initials.
A3.18 In signing on and off duty, the operator going off duty should
sign on one line, giving time and full name. The relief operator
should sign on the next lower line in like manner. Time of these
actions must be placed in the columns provided on the log form.
A3. 19 It should be the duty of each operator reporting for duty to
read the log and familiarize himself with any activity called to
his attention by the operator going off duty.
A3.20 If the station is not operated twenty-four hours a day, it is
suggested that the station be verbally signed on the air at the
beginning of each day of activity, and be verbally signed off at
the end of each day of operation. Example: "This is the Public
Works radio station of the City of Jonesville, Florida, now in
service at 0800, operator (name) on duty, KIE ---." At the end
of the day: "This is the Public Works radio station of the City
of Jonesville, Florida, now out of service at 1700, operator
(name) off duty, KIE ---."
A3 .21 Log sheets should be numbered consecutively, sheet number
one (1) starting just after midnight (2400) on the first day of
each month and continuing until midnight of the last day of
A3.22 A completely new log sheet should be started at the beginning
of each day. If the operator's duty runs from night of one day
until morning of the next, upon the first minute of the morning
of the next day, 0001, the next log .sheet should be numbered
and dated. However, if the operator signs off his tour of duty
during the early morning hours and his relief comes on several
hours later, the same log sheet will be used as if no break had
occured, except, of course, in the matter of the time of entries.
A3.23 If corrections are made in the log, the original entry MUST
NOT BE DEFACED OR RUBBED OUT IN ANY MANNER.
Simply draw a line through the entry, in such a manner that the
entry can still be read, and enter your initials after the original
entry and on the same line, THE DATE ALSO. Make correct
entry on the following line in the usual manner.
A3.24 Operators must be familiar with all stations to be monitored.
The call letters and locations of such stations should be known
by all operators.
A3.25 Operators should not make adjustments to the radio equip-
ment except as provided in the nature of control knobs, etc.
A3.26 Operators must listen to the circuit before keying the trans-
mitter in order to not cause interference. NEVER CALL A STA-
TION WHILE ANOTHER STATION OR CAR IS WORKING.
A3.27 Operators must familiarize themselves with the counties, cities,
and important areas the station serves. Proper pronunciation
must be used.
A3.28 The operator must not leave the operating position at the
control desk unless absolutely necessary and then only by means
of a relief operator or by temporarily signing the station off the
air. He must return immediately upon fulfillment of any other
requirements. THE OPERATOR'S DUTY IS ONE OF OPER-
ATING, AND MONITORING OTHER STATIONS IS OF VI-
TAL IMPORTANCE. STAY ON THE JOB!
A3.29 Courtesy can be more aptly expressed by the tone of voice and
manner of presentation then by words. Eliminate all unneces-
sary talking. Never say "thank you" or "please."
A3.30 Study the construction of a message before transmitting it.
If necessary, write it out on scratch paper and then cut it down
to telegram brevity. Don't be brusque, just be direct.
A3.31 Time on the air is your priceless commodity. Never forget that
your department radio station license is not a bill of sale for the
frequency on which your station operates. It is, rather, public
notification that a federal regulatory body has allowed or "per-
mitted" your department to use a frequency for a period of five
years. Continued and knowledgeable rules violations will result
in that privilege being revoked. Unnecessary time on the air is
a senseless waste of a valuable public resource.
A3.32 Words or voice inflections which when broadcast reflect or
indicate irritation, disgust or sarcasm, must not be used. Rela-
tions with other operators must remain cordial at all times.
A3.33 Be absolutely impersonal while on the air. Avoid the egotisti-
cal "I," and concentrate on third person language.
A3.34 Avoid familiarity. Use proper names and titles or unit identi-
fiers (see Sec. B3.14).
A3.35 NEVER CHANGE A SINGLE WORD IN A FORMAL MES-
SAGE WHICH IS RECEIVED FOR RELAY PURPOSES. RE-
CORD AND RETRANSMIT IT EXACTLY AS GIVEN.
A3.36 A station originating a formal message which is to be relayed
on the air by the receiving station should monitor the receiving
station so as to certify that the message is retransmitted
A3.37 Long messages should be broken into phrases and each phrase
repeated once before going to next phrase of the message.
A3.38 At the end of two or three phrases of a long message the op-
erator should inquire "So Far?" of the station or car to which
he is transmitting. This is done in order to reduce the number
of repeats, because if the receiving operator misses any part of
a message he has missed all the meaning of the message.
A3.39 An operator should not receipt for traffic until he is sure he
has it correctly. If fill-ins are required the following form should
be used: "Go ahead (from the last word received) to (the first
word received after the blank)." Or, if completed except for the
beginning or ending, say "Repeat up to" (the first word re-
ceived), or, "Repeat all after" (the last word received).
A3.40 If, after calling a station or car twice, no reply is received,
sign off the air. Then call again in about a minute. Do not fill
the air with incessant and useless calls.
A3.41 At the end of a transmission when a reply is expected, the
words "Go ahead" should be used. Do not use the term "Over"
or "Come In."
A3.42 When a station calls another station for information, and the
receiving station does not have the information directly at hand,
the receiving station should request a Standby (10-6) and sign
its call letters; in this way the air is clear for other traffic while
the desired information is being obtained.
A3.43 Any station calling must be answered promptly. If it is im-
possible to take a message at the time, the station must still be
answered immediately and advised 10-6. If a message can be
taken, the operator will say "Go Ahead, (city or station or car.)"
UNDER NO CIRCUMSTANCE ALLOW A CALLING STA-
TION TO GO UNHEEDED. GIVE A STANDBY IF NECES-
SARY, BUT AT LEAST ANSWER THE CALL.
A3.44 NEVER FORGET A STANDBY! If you have asked a station
or car to standby, don't forget to call him back as soon as possi-
ble. To do otherwise is not only breach of operating techniques;
it is, in fact, an insult.
A3.45 Use the name of your geographical location in calling up or in
answering calls, "Lake City -- (to) -- Ocala." "Ocala, go ahead,
Lake City." "Richmond -- (to) - 21 (mobile unit)." "21, go
A3.46 It is traditional in the public safety radio services to give the
name of the calling station first - then the name of the station
being called. This practice started in the early days of public
safety radio when static and noise on the low frequencies then
in use made it necessary for the called station to be alerted that
something was coming through the racket. That "alert" was the
calling station announcing its own name first so that at least
the station being called would have heard its own name, and if
it had failed to hear the name of the calling station, it could ask
for the unknown station calling to repeat. In this present day
of congested radio channels this practice is still found to be
that most useful.
A3 .47 Use the call sign of your station at the end of each message
(not necessarily at the end of each transmission as there may be
several transmissions in one message). This not only helps in
complying with an FCC regulation but it also will indicate to
other waiting stations that you have completed this particular
bit of your business and that you have signed your station off the
air so those other stations waiting may use the channel.
A3.48 Example: (3.46-47): "Jonesville - Brownsville, 10-43."
"Brownsville, go ahead, Jonesville." "Car 14 10-23, KIE
"10-4, Jonesville, KIE
A3.49 Signing of a station's call sign is one of the most important
functions of the operator, both because it is necessary by Federal
Rules and because it is the mark of distinction of that particular
station. It must be done in a manner which clearly indicates that
the operator is proud of the service his station offers, and this
is accomplished by putting the accent on the next to last
number in the call sign. KIE 886 is KIE 886. The voice is raised
a complete octave on the 8. KIF 763 is KIF 763. KJG 29 is
KJG ^9. Let your system know that your station is awake,
A3.50 An operator's voice should give the distinct impression that he
is on his toes, alert, ready for any contingency. His reply to a
call must be immediate and decisive. Nothing imparts confi-
dence as does an operator whose voice is impersonal, clear, in-
stant, completely ready to serve. Nothing destroys confidence as
does a voice which conveys the weary impression of: "what the
h do you want?", or that it took all of its strength to push
the mike button, or, that signs off in a garble that threads away
A3.51 Definite time should be specified instead of indefinite; for ex-
ample; "September 10" instead of 'Today, date, yesterday, or
tomorrow." Definite hour and minute time should be used, and
not, "a few minutes ago," etc.
A3.52 Numbers should be repeated first individually as integers, and
then as the whole number. Example, 1,527,617, is transmitted;
1,5,2,7,6,1,7 (pause), one million, five hundred twenty-seven
thousand, six hundred seventeen."
A3.53 The number "0" is normally pronounced as "zero."
A3.54 Numbers are an important part of your message reading. Their
confusion and mis-copying can lead to much trouble, both for
your department and the others to whom your messages are ad-
dressed. Following is the correct pronunciation of numbers:
1-"WUN" . . . with a strong W and N
2-"TOO" with a strong and long OO
3-"TH-R-EE" . with a slightly rolling R and long EE
4-"FO-WER" . with a long and strong W and final R
5-"FIE-YIV" . with a long I changing to short and strong Y
6-"SIKS" . . . with a strong S and KS
7-"SEV-VEN". .with a strong S and V and well-sounded YEN
8-"ATE" .... with a long A and strong T
9-"NI-YEN" . . with a strong N at the beginning, a long I and
a well sounded YEN
0-"ZERO" . . . with a strong Z and a short RO
A3.55 Do not use superfluous words. Never ask "what is your 10-20,"
Instead, ask "10-20?" Don't say "10-6 just a minute." say "10-6."
A3.56 Don't take time to explain why a 10-6 is necessary. The re-
ceiving station should honor a 10-6 without question. Any long
drawn out explanation only causes useless traffic and delay in
A3.57 FORGET HUMOR! Your radio system suffers enough without
A3.58 Twenty-four hundred hour time is preferred over common 12
hour time. If a person receives a message which has been relayed
through several stations advising him to meet someone at a cer-
tain place at "3 o'clock" the following date there is a distinct
possibility the person will wonder if the time given is morning
or afternoon time. Also, the letters AM and PM are often mis-
understood over the air. The use of 2400 time will eliminate the
necessity of entering AM or PM at noon and midnight on the
log forms. (See Sec. 4)
A3.59 Be familiar with the areas serviced by your organization.
Learn the location of highways and other important geographic
points. Seek to improve your knowledge of other cooperating
organizations and know:
A. How to contact the organizations.
B. Who to contact within the organizations.
C. Service they render, what equipment and forces they have
D. Location of their facilities and distances to your area or
Most Public-Safety organizations have coordinated emergency
plans for times of emergency or disaster. Familiarize yourself
with these plans and with your designated role under such con-
A3.60 Do not guess! Check all doubtful words. Never acknowledge a
transmission unless you are sure that you have it correct and
understand it. If the terminology used in the system you are
operating on is unfamiliar to you, learn its. meaning.
A3.61 Caution should be exercised in attempting to explain or ampli-
fy a message given to you to transmit. If the person receiving
the message indicates doubt as to the meaning of a message re-
peat the message verbatim. If the person receiving the message is
still unable to understand the meaning of the message, refer the
message to the originator for clarification.
A3.62 Avoid phrases and words that are difficult to copy. Some ex-
amples of poor and preferred words are listed:
Do you want Advise if
Find out Advise if
Call and see Check
A3.63 Dispatching names can be accomplished accurately by first
pronouncing the complete name; then spelling the first name,
giving the first letter of the name phonetically; then pronounc-
ing the last name and then spelling it phonetically (see Sec.4):
Then pronounce the whole name -
It is better to spend the extra time required in spelling names
clearly, since, for example, this name could easily have been
copied "Fares", "Farres", or Ferris", depending upon local pro-
A3.64 Remember the word "CYMBALS" when describing motor
vehicles. Start at the top and move down according to the
Serial (yehicle Identification Number)
A3.65 A station operator should ask a telephone caller to wait until
it can be determined if an incoming radio call is urgent. Only .a
few seconds will be required to copy a short message and re-
sume the telephone call, or, advise 10-6 if the telephone call
proves more urgent.
A3.66 If a station operator has a message of any length which must
be copied by a mobile operator, the sending station should so
indicate a message to be copied. This will allow the mobile oper-
ator time to move out of traffic if necessary ( alone in car, etc. )
and prepare to copy the message. This may avoid having to re-
peat or will give the mobile operator an opportunity to advise
his status. He might be on the way in to headquarters, making
transmission of the message unnecessary. Message could be
handled as follows:
Base: "Charleston - 210, 10-63."
Car: "210, Charleston, Adams and Monroe, 10-6."
Then: "210, Charleston. Go ahead with traffic."
A3.67 The international distress signal is the spoken word "MAY-
DAY" from the French term "M'aidez" which is a request for
help. This signal is in regular use, particularly in the aeronauti-
cal and maritime fields, and should be immediately recognized
by any operator as an urgent call for aid. Its reception and all
pertinent traffic and/or action should be logged. This signal
should not be used for any other than a situation of extreme
gravity and its false or fraudulent use is prohibited,
A3.68 There are other signals which indicate emergency. Operators
should be instantly familiar with these, among which are
"10-33", "10-34", the spoken word "urgent" repeated several
times, or simply the word "help." When assistance is needed in
minor emergencies such a word as * 'assistance" will indicate the
degree of urgency.
A3.69 Some form of an "in service" and "out of service" mobile unit
log (10-7 and 10-8) should be carefully maintained. This record
is used constantly in dispatch operations and it is all important
when an emergency situation demands the need for all mobile
units with a minimum delay. Also, it is of great importance to
a person who is on an investigation or to the mobile operator
who must leave his radio equipped vehicle and go into some
area on foot or alone. Should either encounter trouble, the fact
that the dispatcher knows his last location and his logical time
of return to service may then mean the difference between life
The status control method may be a written log, a map with
indicators, a sophisticated status board, or other means.
A3.70 The TEN SIGNALS are listed in Section 4. They were orig-
inally formulated by Illinois APCO members in 1935 and they
were registered and officially adopted by National APCO in
1940. They have been universally used since that time by all
types of two-way radio users.
The purpose of the TEN SIGNALS is two-fold: to achieve
reliability and speed.
Reliability is achieved 'by the TEN (10-) portion of the signal
wherein the "10-" is an euphonic "alert" attesting to the fact
that information is about to follow. (See Sec. A3.46).
The SIGNAL portion (number following the 10-) is the in-
formation content. It is the condensation of several words and
it therefore achieves Speed by the use of brevity. It also achieves
speed due to the fact that numbers, because of inflection, are not
as easily confused as words, and, because numbers are more
easily read through the noise that is ever present in a two-way
A TEN SIGNAL is complete in itself. If it is not correctly
used it would be better not to use it at all, since the meaning is
not clear and the transmission ungrammatical.
Correct - "10-4, Rockford."
Incorrect - "I am 10-4 on that information, Rockford."
Correct - "Car 5, 10-20."
Incorrect - "Car 5, what is your 10-20."
Correct - "Car 5, Main and Adams."
Incorrect - "Car 5, my 10-20 is Main and Adams."
Correct - "Jackson, car 9, 10-1."
Incorrect - "Jackson, car 9, your signal is 10-1."
A3.71 Reliability is improved in radiotelephone transmissions by the
best qualities of dialect, euphony and enunciation. Pronounce
words clearly and somewhat slowly; a rate of about 60 words
per minute is proper.
A3. 72 A standard message form is recommended to be used by non-
operating personnel when they wish a mesage to be handed to
the dispatcher for transmission. This should be used whenever it
is important that the exact text be accurately received. The form
should also be used by the dispatcher to copy incoming messages
and to deliver them to the addressee. (See Sec. 4).
A careful operator will insist on the use of such a form as it is
his protection from criticism by either sender or receiver in case
of misunderstanding or related problems. It will eliminate mis-
directed messages and insure the accuracy of messages sent. It
will establish time and responsibility. Messages on the standard
form are readily adaptable for transmission by any normal me-
dium such as radiotelephone, teletype, telephone, mail, or by
runner. A copy retained by both operator and sender or ad-
dressee will verify accuracy. Importance of the form increases
with the volume of interagency or interdepartment traffic.
The minimum required information that such a form should
contain is indicated on a sample made part of this manual.
A3.73 COMMON ERRORS WITH CORRECTIONS
"Trailer hitch on rear" Where else would they nor-
"Trunk on rear" mally be? "Trailer hitch;
"Fog light on front bumper" trunk; fog light"
"'66 Ford sedan color black" "Black '66 Ford sedan"
"Be on the lookout for . . ." "Attempt to locate ..."
"Pick up and hold" For what? By what authori-
ty? State definite charges or
"Golden-voice Philco radio" Don't put out commercial
"Stolen car with Motor Club
sticker on rear window and
Junior Commando sticker on
"GE-19-32" ... if your loca-
tion is Maryland assume the
current year and Maryland
plate when broadcasting; in-
dicate only if other state or
year, and, if the message is
intended for out of state in-
"Stolen between 9:57 and "About 2200" ... if not an
10:10 p.m. inprogress criminal act.
"Height 5-7" . . . fractional
description not vital.
"Wanted for passing fraudu- "Wanted for BAD checks" or
lent checks" "Wanted on warrant for bad
. . ." Use phrasing easy to
"Bad interference. I am hav- Who cares? .
ing noise from an electric call."
motor. I will have to call
. "10-1, will
"I didn't get the part about Don't ramble. Never use "I."
calling for the car . . . what's Be impersonal. Ask for fills
the address?" "10-9 all after . ."
"Easton-Waterloo, come in." "Easton-Waterloo, 10-63."
"Randallstown answering "Randallstown, go ahead,
"KGA-915 to Washington." "Waterloo- Washington."
Objects in mouth
Poor mike technique
Anger in voice
HOW DO THEY READ YOU?
.... Normally, that is. But there's an-
other thing .... how about stuck mike
buttons? If the other guy's is stuck,
you can't tell him about it, for his
transmitter will be on and he can't re-
ceive at the same time. If YOURS is
stuck, nobody can tell YOU, either. In
fact, in the normal system with ump-
teen mobile and base stations, how
CAN you tell whose is stuck?
The best answer is for everyone to
check his little red transmitter light
occasionally. Better still, be suspicious
if everything gets too quiet, you may
be "on" and don't know it. If so, every-
thing you say will be going out over
the air, and we can't draw a picture
horrible enough to depict your feelings
at the awful moment of discovery
At that time they'll be reading you...
Pitch too high
Pitch too low
MOBILE UNIT TECHNIQUES
B3.1 "CAR 54 WHERE ARE YOU?" is, of course, a foolish and in-
ane question, yet it is the basis for a majority of questions ask-
ed in normal mobile unit intercommunications. Because of the
waste of airtime in this senseless type of questioning, this Sec-
tion begins with perhaps the most important statement in mobile
unit techniques: "ALWAYS GIVE YOUR 10-20 WHEN CALL-
ED!" Don't make the calling station ask for it.
B3.2 The waste of airtime in (Sec. B3.1) is not the only waste con-
cerned. Your location immediately tells if you are in an area
that is suddenly under scrutiny, or that you are close enough to
be of assistance in another such area, that you are in position
to pick up a relay, why your signal may be weak, and a dozen
other things. It speeds up overall system efficiency. Don't be a
Car 54. Always let your department know where you are; this
is one of the main reasons for the expenditure of tax-supported
funds for the purchase of your radio. GIVE YOUR 10-20 WHEN
B3.3 When called, the mobile unit operator should answer as,
Base: "Jonesville - 99, 10-12."
Mobile: "99, Jonesville, Live Oak and Canal, 10-4, 99."
Base: "Smithville - 201, 10-77."
Mobile: "201, Smithville, 5 miles out on road 500. 10-77 1430.
Mobile: "5 - Brownsville. 10-7, Mercy Hospital. 5"
Base: "10-7, Mercy Hospital, 5. KIE
Repeated (confirmed) signals, call numbers, and location may
seem to be cumbersome and may be considered too complex a
procedure for a small system, but, reliability ingrained in one
sphere of activity reflects in others. In the large system, or in
one subject to interference from other systems, it is difficult for
a unit otherwise to be certain that the base station is answering
him and has received his information correctly.
B3.4 Two other most important requirements for a mobile unit are
the advisements to the base station of the unit's 10-7's and
10-8's. Nothing is so revealing of a system's efficency as a sta-
tion log that on one line indicates a mobile out of service and on
the next line exhibits a message from that unit without benefit of
a 10-8. Of more importance is the damage done by relying on the
emergency assistance of a mobile unit whose status board light
is on but who has arbitrarily gone 10-7 and then is silent during
a crisis. ALWAYS GIVE 10-7 and 10-8!
B3.5 If for any reason it is necessary for a mobile unit to call a
station not associated with its own system, the mobile station
- should identify itself by using the name of ( its governmental en-
tity and its mobile designator.
"Lee County Car 73 - Sangamon County, 10-43." (See Sec. B3.9)
B3.6 Because of the complexity of operation in a communications
center, base station operators can give attention only to sig-
nals which are readable. Units calling in and receiving 10-1
without further explanation should realize the operator can hear
the call but cannot read, and cannot afford to clutter the air
with repeated 10-9's.
B3.7 It is not necessary for a mobile unit operator to have an FCC
license. He is, however, required to know the applicable Rules
and Regulations of the FCC and is therefore responsible and
accountable for his communications activities (See Sec. 5).
B3.8 Every mobile radio station is required to exhibit (post) an
executed FCC form 452-C at its control point (on or near the
control head). A sticker or plate may be substituted for the
form but the substitute must bear the same information as the
form. The mobile unit operator should always advise his super-
visor, or his technical maintenance division, if the form is muti-
lated or missing,
B3.9 Regardless of examples before mentioned, IF THE MOBILE
STATIONS IN A SYSTEM ARE LICENSED SEPARATELY
FROM THEIR ASSOCIATED BASE STATION then such mo-
bile units are required to use that call sign at the end of each
transmission (or series of related transmissions). The mobile
unit designator may also be used. Example:
Base: "Jonesville - 22. 10-43."
Mobile: "22, Jonesville, county courthouse. Go ahead."
Base: (gives message)
Mobile: "10-4, Jonesville. 22, KA ."
This procedure is also required, whether or not seperately
licensed, in direct car-to-car intercommunications. Remember
that the reason for all this is to allow FCC monitors to easily
identify any licensee heard on the air.
This procedure is also required when the units of one licensee
intercommunicates with the stations of another licensee (see
B3.10 A given system should consider whether or not it will permit
freewheeling mobile unit intercommunications or whether mo-
bile-to-mobile communications must first be cleared with the as-
sociated base station. A system of any size generally cannot
stand free car-to-car communications since the mobile units have
no way of knowing when the base station is monitoring a distant
station. It is normally desirable for the base station to require
the mobile units to request direct car-to-car radio contact.
B3.ll When using a mobile station, hold the microphone approxi-
mately one inch from lips, press the microphone button down
firmly, and then speak slowly and clearly across the mouthpiece
in a normal to loud voice. Do not hold the microphone directly
in front of your mouth, but slightly to the side, and at an angle
of about 45, so that you talk across the face of the microphone
instead of "blowing" into it
Shouting or yelling into the microphone will cause an extreme-
ly distorted signal and must be avoided even though there is
a great amount of noise from the engine or nearby activities. It
is also essential that your voice maintain a constant volume
which does not trail off.
B3.12 Think before you transmit. Know what you want to say. Press
button. Hesitate an instant. Speak. Speak distinctly. Be brief.
Be concise. Be impersonal. Do not mumble. Do not shout. Do
not talk too fast. Do not become excited. Do not try to trans-
mit while someone else is transmitting.
B3.13 Do not transmit:
1. During a Civil Defense test, or during an actual enemy
attack except as directed.
2. Within 200 yards of blasting operations, or where blasting
caps are stored. (These areas are usually posted).
3. When advised by a base station to stand-by due to inter-
ference with other communication which you may not be
4. When' your transmission will obviously interfere with com-
munications in progress, or such communication will ob-
viously make your transmission unintelligible.
5. Lengthy messages when your engine is not running unless,
of course, you are reporting engine faliure. Keep your trans-
missions short and as infrequent as possible.
B3.14 The use of unit designators is allowed by the Federal Com-
munications Commission in recognition of the normal difficulty
of calling or identifying mobile stations. The specific system of
unit designation must be worked out by each department to fit
its particular communication system and organizational plan.
B3.15 Small departments may use consecutive numbers to identify
the mobile stations. Large departments may use various series
of numbering to designate different divisions or tasks within the
department, such as Nos. 1-99 to indicate supervisory personnel
and 100-899 to indicate patrol officers or field personnel and
900-999 to indicate technical services. Other departments use
combinations of letters and numbers.
B3.16 In any event, it should be borne in mind that unit designators
refer only to the mobile radiotelephone station and not to the
man operating it, although the man may become so identified
with the designator that the two are synonomous. The Federal
Communications Commission licenses are for station-to-station
operation, not person-to-person. If it is required to address a
mesage to a specific officer he should be referred to by badge
number, employee number, or by name. This could occur when
a person normally associated with another mobile station is
riding in another radio-equipped vehicle and a message is direct-
ed to him.
Base: "Georgetown - 22. 10-43."
Base: "Advise Officer Jones his car is ready at garage
KIE '." 65-
Remember, the FCC does not authorize unit designators for
people to be used in lieu of unit designators for radiotelephones.
However, some systems have the badge or employee number and
the mobile unit designation as the same. Some systems. have
special auto license plates and use this as the unit number.
B3.17 Remember, the call sign of a mobile unit is the tag by which
the FCC identifies your licensee. When necessary to say the call
sign - say it! Don't garble - speak! KA2486 is not Katy Foo
EXHIBITS (Section 4)
REVISED OFFICIAL APCO TEN SIGNALS
Radio users are urged to incorporate the use of the APCO TEN
SIGNALS in their radio operating procedure. They are short, easily
understood and convey maximum meaningful intelligence in minimum
The proper use of these signals contributes significantly to the con-
servation of air-time by restricting free choice of words to prescribed
forms when transmitting that information which constitutes the major
portion of daily radio traffic. Those signals marked by asterisk are
those most in use.
These signals serve a dual purpose inasmuch as they can be used
to make a statement, or ask a question, simply by voice inflection.
In order to provide a degree of security to their transmissions many
departments assign "Post Numbers" to key locations. The use of these
post numbers modified with distance and direction, permits them to
pinpoint a specific location without giving it in plain language.
Unable to copy - change location
Busy - Stand by unless urgent
Out of service (Give location and/ or
Fight in progress
Stand by (stop)
Weather and road report
Report of prowler
Complete assignment quickly
* 10-19 Return to .
* 10-20 Location
* 10-2 1 Call by telephone
* 10-22 Disregard
* 10-23 Arrived at scene
* 10-24 Assignment completed
* 10-25 Report in person to (meet)
10-26 Detaining subject, expedite
10-27 Drivers license information
* 10-28 Vehicle registration information
* 10-29 Check records for wanted.
* 10-30 Illegal use of radio
10-31 Crime in progress
10-32 Man with gun
10-35 Major crime alert
* 10-36 Correct time
10-37 Investigate suspicious vehicle
10-38 Stopping suspicious vehicle (Give station
complete description before stopping).
10-39 Urgent-Use light and siren
10-40 Silent run - No light or siren
* 10-41 Beginning tour of duty
*10-42 Ending tour of duty
* 10-43 Information
10-44 Request permission to leave patrol
10-45 Animal carcass in lane at
10-46 Assist motorist
10-47 Emergency road repairs needed
10-48 Traffic standard needs repairs
10-49 Traffic light out
*10-50 Accident -- F, PI, PD
* 10-5 1 Wrecker needed
* 10-52 Ambulance needed
10-53 Road blocked
10-54 Livestock on highway
* 10-55 Intoxicated driver
10-56 Intoxicated pedestrian
10-57 Hit and run - F, PI, PD
10-58 Direct traffic
* 10-59 Convoy or escort
10-60 Squad in vicinity
10-61 Personnel in area.
* 10-62 Reply to message
* 10-63 Prepare to make written copy
* 10-64 Message for local delivery
* 10-65 Net message assignment
* 10-66 Message cancellation
* 10-67 Clear to read net message
* 10-68 Dispatch information
* 10-69 Message received
* 10-70 Fire alarm
10-71 Advise nature of fire (size, type, and
contents of building)
10-72 Report progress on fire
10-73 Smoke report
* 10-75 In contact with
* 10-76 En Route
* 10-77 ETA ( Estimated Time of Arrival )
10-78 Need assistance
10-79 Notify coroner
* 10-82 Reserve lodging
10-84 If meeting advise ETA
10-85 Will be late
* 10-87 Pick up checks for distribution
* 10-88 Advise present telephone number of
10-90 Bank alarm
10-91 Unnecessary use of radio
10-94 Drag racing
10-96 Mental subject
10-98 Prison or jail break
10-99 Records indicate wanted or stolen
APCO TEN SIGNALS
10-3 To be used when other vehicles or stations are
interfering with emergency traffic, (i.e., 10-37,
10-33 in progress)
10-5 Can be used to indicate the relay of a person,
property or a message. If for the relay of a
message, indicate destination. "10-5 to "
10-6 If urgent traffic, it should be indicated on first
10-11 Qualify by indicating the nature of the case -
as dog bite, rabid, injured, etc.
10-12 Physical stand by, remain alert. Not a stand
by (10-6) on the radio.
10-14 Give location.
10-15 This can be applied to a disturbance with ra-
cial overtones, rowdy group of teenagers, etc. -
10-16 Give location.
10-17 Give location.
10-24 Indicates personnel is back in service and avail-
able for assignment.
10-26 Indicates that this traffic should take prece-
dence over routine traffic.
10-31 Can be used when specific details are not
available - give location.
10-32 Can be used in conjunction with other signals,
i.e., 10-10, 10-31, - give location.
10-33 Maximum priority. Should be used on the ini-
tial call to indicate traffic pertaining to danger
to life or property. All stations or vehicles not
involved in the emergency should maintain
radio silence until the emergency is over or
10-34 Give location.
10-35 Used to alert all stations or vehicles on the
frequency to make themselves available to as-
sist where needed - always followed with maxi-
mum information as to the nature of the crime
and assistance needed.
10-38 The officer MUST furnish maximum infor-
mation BEFORE stopping suspicious vehicle.
(Color, make, model and license of vehicle.
Number of occupants, direction of travel, etc.)
Each department should establish a time limit
for the officer to indicate an "all clear" before
all available assistance is sent.
10-39 Can be used to give any other signal an emer-
10-40 To be used to indicate haste, while observing all
safety precautions and not attract attention.
10-43 Use when asking if any, or supplying infor-
10-45 Give location.
10-46 Give location.
10-47 Indicate nature of repairs needed and location.
10-48 Give location.
10-49 Give location.
10-50 F - Fatal PI - Personal Injuries PD Prop-
10-53 Give location.
10-54 Give location.
10-55 Give location.
10-56 Give location.
10-57 Give location.
10-58 Can be used to assist funeral procession, high-
way repairs, etc.
10-60 Give location or area.
10-62 Use when inquiring for, or furnishing, reply to
a previous message. Refer to previous number,
10-63 Used to inform a vehicle to park and write
down the forthcoming radio message - the of-
ficer will not advise the station to "go-ahead"
until he is ready to copy.
10-64 Used when the message is not to be relayed by
radio but must be delivered to someone in
person or by telephone - may require a mes-
sage in duplicate.
10-65 Used by state nets to obtain the next message
number to be assigned.
10-67 Used to capture the circuit and to indicate all
units and stations are to copy.
10-68 Used for "attempt-to-locate" messages, etc.
10-69 To inquire if, or state that, a message has been
10-70 Give location.
10-73 Used in Forestry Service when smoke has been
observed. Give location or coordinates.
10-75 "10-75, 11?" "10-4, 10-75, #11."
10-76 "99 10-76 Jonesville 10-25 #2. 10-77 1600."
10-77 See 10-76 above.
10-82 Used by traveling personnel to request a sta-
tion to obtain lodging reservations. The sta-
tion should confirm after reservations have
10-84 To request general information on an intention,
or as a specific inquiry regarding a previous
request. ("Get with it if you're going to do it.*')
10-85 "#2 10-85. 10-77 1630."
10-88 Used to make certain a person is available for
a station to station call, where he is at the
10-90 Give location.
10-93 To set up blockade in connection with a crime -
to execute an existing blockade plan, or set up
a blockade as the situation may require.
10-96 To alert an officer he is dealing with a mental
10-98 Follow by detailed information as soon as it
10-99 To alert an officer he is dealing with a person
who is wanted or who may be driving a stolen
vehicle without alarming the suspect.
The phonetic alphabet should be used for spelling out unusual
names of persons and locations. The names used after each letter have
been found to be the most understandable over the air. They should
always be given as: "A'* - Adam, "B" - Boy .... never "A" as in Adam
or "B" as for boy, etc. The alphabet is easily memorized.
2400 HOUR TIME
2400 HOUR TIME 12 HOUR TIME
2400 Midnight (twenty-four hundred)
0001 One minute after midnight.
(zero zero zero one)
0015 Quarter past midnight*
(zero zero one five)
0045 45 minutes past midnight.
(zero zero four five)
0100 One o'clock in the morning.
(zero one hundred)
0130 One thirty AM. (zero one three zero)
0200 2 AM ( zero two hundred)
0300 3 AM
0500 5 AM
1000 10 AM (ten hundred)
1100 11 AM (eleven hundred)
1201 One minute after noon (Twelve zero one)
1215 Quarter past noon (Twelve fifteen)
1300 (add 100 to 1200) 1 PM (Thirteen hundred)
1345 (add 0045 to 1300) 1:45 PM (Thirteen forty-five)
1400 (add 200 to 1200) 2 PM
1500 (add 300 to 1200) 3 PM
1600 (add 400 to 1200) 4 PM
1700 (add 500 to 1200) 5 PM
1800 (add 600 to 1200) 6 PM
1900 (add 700 to 1200) 7 PM
2000 (add 800 to 1200) 8 PM (Twenty hundred)
2100 (add 900 to 1200) 9 PM (Twenty one hundred)
2200 (add 1000 to 1200) 10 PM
2300 (add 1100 to 1200) 11 PM
STANDARD DESCRIPTIONS OF PERSONS
ALWAYS GET IN THIS ORDER
OMIT ANY ITEM YOU DO NOT HAVE
1 1 . CLOTHING
HEAD TO FOOT
MEMORIZE THE SEQUENCE !
USE IT ON THE XlR, ON
THE TELEPHONE, AND IN
RADIO AND COMMUNICATIONS DIVISION
. CALL SIGN:_
(NAME OF AGENCY)
. SHEET NO:.
MESSAGE FORM #1
(Inter or Intrasystem)
15 SHRF LEE COUNTY ILL 12-20-66 (A. Preamble)
PD CARBONDALE ILL (B. Address)
DATA AND DISPOSITION RED 62 CHEVROLET (C. Text)
4 DOOR ILL LL1948 VIN 21723T58723
ABANDONED DIXON ILLINOIS THREE DAYS
HELD ANDREWS GARAGE FRONT END DAMAGED
NOT DRIVEABLE NO APPREHENSIONS WILL
BE RELEASED TO OWNER ON PROOF OF
SHERIFF LEE COUNTY
ILLINOIS JRM 1530 CST (D. Signature)
The preamble contains the message number, point of origin and
the date transmitted.
The address is the name of the department to which the message
The text contains the intelligence to be transmitted. Note the con-
cise wording of the text. No unnecessary words, but still very under-
standable. If the message contained information that a person was be-
ing detained, the message should indicate the charge or how long the
suspect will be detained.
The signature contains the source of authority, the initials of the
operator and the time transmitted.
Note omission of punctuation marks.
MESSAGE FORM #2
For originating stations, the form is an aid in composition; for the
relaying station the form is an aid for speedier copying and retrans-
mission; for the receiving station the form, dangling from the staple, is
a visual reminder it is yet to be delivered to the addressee. For all
stations, the form is a record for the files, except, when delivered to the
addressee personally; in this instance, the station Log Sheet must bear
the complete message. Other station^ Logs show only the message num-
ber, with message attached.
At the bottom of the form, if "Station" abbreviation is same as ab-
breviation in the message number then that particular station is the
originating station; if different from destination station then that par-
ticular station is a relaying station, if same as suffix then that particu-
lar station is the destination station. All blank spaces at bottom must
be filled: "Operator" will be person originating, relaying or receiving,
"Time" will be time (r)eceived and (t)ransmitted. Word count (W.C.)
is the number of words in the body of the message and it is used for
the purpose of reliability. Number combinations, abbreviated caps,
hyphenated words, eta, are counted as one word.
MESSAGE NUMBER; A?
TO ^ 1 1 TIME : 1H I
Station; UL. Operator: ^\T~ IlneCR) ! i4yX(T) : |4l4 Date :
MESSAGE FORM #3
( Agency address)
Da ted at (Location)
Regular message D Urgent D
TO AVOID ERRORS PLEASE TYPE OR PRINT IN CAPTIAL LETTERS
To be completed by operator:
Received for tramission D
. Badge No. .
Received for delivery D.
(Time) (Date) 196. by__
. Received from
Physical - scars,
WARRANT AND EXTRADITION INFORMATION
Comments, or stolen property list
UNIT NO. LOCATfON
OUT OF SERVICE OR NOTIFIED
Q SUBJECT TO CALL
NOTIFIED: 1 1 PERSON ABOVE
n STREET OEPT. P~l TRAFFIC OEPT.
, FIRST. MIDDLE)
SEX RACE HAT I WOT HAIR EYE!
VEHICLE IF DIFFERENT FROM ABOVE!
1 NOT IN FILE
Q NO RECORD COMP1 . AINTN0 . 0( , AOT HOR,TY
RADIO ADMINISTRATIVE FORM 1.1
QNWQNEJ JUSED Q
COMPLAINANT'S NAME Q REFUSED ADDRESS Q SAME AS LOC. TELEPHONE NO.
DISTURBANCE . . O FAMILY Q JUVENILES Q VEHICLES Q ANIMALS
riv SB rn A T n
LJ LJ LJ LJ
C~|M. 1. f~""l CASE f~] ACC. n ARREST
OTHER IDENTIFYING INFORMATION
DIRECTION OF FLIGHT
] FIRE DEPT
TELEPHONE NO. 1 BASIS l~~l OWNER'S REQUEST
JO DOTATION Q NEAREST AVAIL.
MBERS NOTIFIED! TITLE h NA*
COMPLAINT REPORT FORM 1.2
1 Communications Commission
FCC FIELD OFFICES
Mailing addresses for Commission Field Offices are listed below.
Street addresses can be found in local directories under "United States
FIELD ENGINEERING OFFICES
Address all communications to Engineer in Charge, FCC.
Alabama, Mobile 36602
Alaska, Anchorage 99501
(P.O. Box 644)
California, Los Angeles 90014
California, San Diego 92101
California, San Francisco 94126
California, San Pedro 90731
Colorado, Denver 80202
District of Columbia,
Florida, Miami 33101
(P.O. Box 150)
Florida, Tampa 33606
Georgia, Atlanta 30303
Georgia, Savannah 31402
(P.O. Box 77)
Hawaii, Honolulu 96808
Illinois, Chicago 60604
Louisiana, New Orleans 70130
Maryland, Baltimore 21202
Massachusetts, Boston 02109
Michigan, Detroit 48226
Minnesota, St. Paul 55102
Missouri, Kansas City 64106
New York, Buffalo 14203
New York, New York 10014
Oregon, Portland 97205
Puerto Rico, San Juan 00903
Texas, Beaumont 77704
(P.O. Box 1527)
Texas, Dallas 75202
Texas, Houston 77002
Virginia, Norfolk 23510
Washington, Seattle 98104
THE FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D. C. 20554
5.1 The Federal Communications Commission is established un-
der the provisions of Title 1 of the Communications Act of 1934.
The Commission is composed of seven members appointed by the
President and confirmed by the Senate. The President appoints
one of the members as Chairman.
5.2 In general, the Commission assigns frequencies in the different
radio fields, licenses the radio stations and determines the oper-
ating requirements of their transmitters, regulates overseas and
long distance but not intrastate telephone and telegraph service,
promotes the more effective use of radio with emphasis on its
utilization to protect life and property, and harnesses radio and
wire facilities for the national defense program. In this sense,
the Commission Rules and Regulations provide for those radio
services that will best promote and protect the public interest
in matters relating to that portion of the public domain of the
electromagnetic (frequency) spectrum that is within the Com-
5.3 The radio frequency spectrum is an eletromagnetic phenomena
that cannot be divided or allocated in a material sense. Yet,
because it is universal in nature and its effects useful to man
everywhere, it is the subject of international treaties and na-
tional boundaries agreements.
5.4 The frequencies allocated in the United States are jointly ad-
ministered by the Commission and the Interdepartmental Radio
Advisory Committee. The Committee (IRAC) is formed of
representatives of the using agencies of the Federal Government
and IRAC reserves approximately fifty percent of the frequencies
to be allocated in the U. S. The remaining such frequencies are
administered by the Commission.
5.5 The Commission structure is divided into Bureaus and each
of these branches perform technical, legal, and administrative
functions with respect to a radio service or group of radio serv-
ices, such as Broadcast, Aviation, Industrial, Public Safety, etc.
The Public Safety Services are made up of several services, such
as: Fire, Police, Forestry-Conservation, Highway Maintenance,
Local Government, etc. Each service has its own assigned fre-
quencies and particular rules. In some instances, however, pro-
vision is made for two or more services to use the same frequen-
5.6 The Commission's offices are headquartered in Washington,
D. C., but it has many field offices throughout the states and it is
through these offices that the Commission functions at the local
level. These offices are largely concerned with inspection and
each is headed by an Engineer-in-Charge. Officials of these of-
fices monitor and inspect licensed operations within their re-
spective areas. They also have responsibilities with respect to
the detection and elimination of unauthorized operations and
interference to radio communications.
5.7 The above statements attest to the importance and scarcity of
radio frequencies. It is because of the priceless value of these
channels that the Rules and Regulations are established and
enforced. The Commission allocates frequencies so as to provide
for the public convenience and necessity and it does this by
means of its Rules and Regulations.
5.8 A better understanding of how and why the Rules are formu-
lated affords a better understanding of the necessity for con-
forming to their requirements. The following items in this sec-
tion lists the most important operating Rules in the Public Safe-
ty Radio Services. It is not intended here to cover all the Rules
nor to quote them verbatim, nor is it likely that those Rules
treated within will remain forever in effect since they are sub-
ject to continuous review and modification; this is one reason
why a copy of the Rules should be kept on hand. Write for
Volume V of the Federal Communications Rules and Regula-
tions to: Superintendant of Documents, U. S. Government Print-
ing Office, Washington, D. C., 20402, and attach a money order
in the amount of $2.50. Part 89 in Volume V contains the Rules
for the Public Safety Radio Services. The station file should also
contain a copy of Volume I of the Rules. This Volume contains
Part 13 - Commercial Radio Operators, and Part 17 - Construc-
tion, Marking and Lighting of Antenna Structures. This Volume
is also ordered from the Superintendant of Documents and costs
an additional $2.50.
5.9 STATION LICENSE:
A public safety radio station shall not be operated unless it is
properly licensed by the Federal Communications Commission
and the station license is posted or kept available as specified by
the rules governing the particular service and/or class of station.
Station licenses must be renewed prior to the expiration of such
license as provided in the Rules and Regulations.
The current authorization for each mobile station and each
base or fixed station authorized to be operated at temporary
locations shall be retained as a permanent part of the station
records, but need not be posted. In addition, an executed Trans-
mitter Identification Card (FCC Form 452-C) or a plate of me-
tal or other durable substance, legibly indicating the call sign
and the licensee's name and address, shall be affixed readily
visible for inspection, to each of such transmitters: Provided,
That, if the transmitter is not in view of the operating position
or is not readily accessible for inspection, then such card or plate
shall be affixed to the control equipment at the transmitter
operating position or posted adjacent thereto.
The current authorization for each base or fixed station at a
fixed location shall be posted at the principal control point of
the station, and a photocopy of such authorization shall be post-
ed at all other control points listed on the authorization. In ad-
dition, an executed Transmitter Identification Card (FCC Form
452-C) or a plate of metal or other durable substance, legibly
indicating the call sign and the licensee's name and address,
shall be affixed, readily visible for inspection, to each transmit-
ter operated at a fixed location, when such transmitter is not in
view of, or is not readily accessible to, the operator at the prin-
cipal control point.
5.10 OPERATOR REQUIREMENTS:
A public safety radio telephone station during the course of
normal rendition of service, on frequencies above 25Mh/z, may
be operated by an unlicensed person, if authorized to do so by
the station licensee, from a control point of a mobile, a base or
fixed station, or, from a dispatch point of a base or fixed station.
All transmitter adjustments or tests during or coincident with
the installation, servicing, or maintenance of a radiotelephone
station, which may affect the proper operation of such station,
shall be made by or under the immediate supervision and respon-
sibility of a person holding a first- or second-class commercial
radio operators license, either radiotelephone or radiotelegraph,
who shall be responsible for the proper functioning of the sta-
The provisions of the Federal Communications Commission
rules and regulations, authorizing certain unlicensed persons to
operate certain stations, shall not be construed to change or
diminish in any respect the responsibility of station licensees to
have and to maintain control over the stations licensed to them,
or for the proper functioning and operation of those stations in
accordance with the terms of the licenses of those stations,
5.11 NATURE OF COMMUNICATIONS:
Only such calls as are specifically authorized by the rules gov-
erning stations in the public safety services may be transmitted.
False calls, false or fraudulent distress signals, superfluous and
unidentified communications, and obscene, indecent, and profane
language, and the transmission of unassigned call signals are
Stations in the public safety service are primarily authorized
to transmit communications directly relating to public safety
and the protection of life and property and communications es-
sential to official public safety activities.
5.12 SECRECY OF RADIO COMMUNICATIONS:
The contents of a radio communication shall not be divulged
to any person or party other than to whom it is addressed, ex-
cept as specifically provided in Section 605 of the Communica-
5.13 PREVENTION OF INTERFERENCE:
Inasmuch as most radio transmissions are conducted on radio
channels which are shared among many stations, it is necessary
that precautions be observed to avoid congestion and inter-
In order to avoid interference with communications in prog-
ress, an operator shall listen on the frequency on which he in-
tends to receive for a sufficient period to ascertain that he will
be able to hear the station he is calling and that his transmis-
sion will not cause interference. He shall not attempt to call if
interference is likely to result.
5.14 CONTENT OF STATION RECORD (LOG):
For all base and fixed stations except those authorized to
operate at temporary locations for unattended operation, the
name or names of the persons (operators) responsible for the
operation of the transmitting equipment each day, together with
the period of their duty. Each such person shall sign, not initial,
the record both when coming on and when going off duty.
For stations whose antenna or antenna supporting structure
is required to be illuminated, a record in accordance with the
(1) The time the tower lights are turned on and off each
day if manually controlled.
(2) The time the daily check of proper operation of the
tower lights was made.
(3) In the event of any observed or otherwise known fail-
ure of a tower light:
( I) Nature of such a failure.
( II ) Date and time failure was observed, or other-
(Ill) Identification of the Flight Service Station
(FAA) notified of the failure of any code or
rotating beacon light or top light not correct-
ed within 30 minutes, and date and time such
notice was given.
( IV) Date and time notice was given to the Flight
Service Station (FAA) that the required illu-
mination was resumed.
5.15 FORM OF STATION RECORD:
The records shall be kept in an orderly manner and in such
detail that the data are readily available. Key letters or abbrevi-
ations may be used if proper meaning or explanation is set forth
in the record.
Each entry in the records shall be signed by a person qualified
to do so having actual knowledge of the facts to be recorded.
No record or portion thereof shall be erased, obliterated, or
willfully destroyed within the required retention period. Any
necessary correction may be made only by the person originating
the entry who shall strike out the erroneous portion, initial the
correction made, and indicate the date of correction.
5.16 RETENTION OF STATION RECORDS:
Records required to be kept by this part shall be retained by
the licensee for a period of at least one year.
5.17 INSPECTION OF STATIONS:
All stations and records of stations in these services shall be
made available for inspection to a Commission representative at
any time while the station is in operation or shall be made avail-
able for inspection upon reasonable request of an authorized
representative of the Commission.
5.18 OPERATING PROCEDURE:
Each station, unless otherwise indicated, shall transmit the
assigned call sign at the end of each transmission or exchange of
transmissions, or once each 30 minutes of the operating period
as the licensee may prefer.
A mobile station, unless otherwise indicated, shall transmit an
identification at the end of each transmission or exchange of
transmissions, or once each 30 minutes of the operating period
as the licensee may prefer.
5.19 TRANSMITTER CONTROL REQUIREMENTS:
Each transmitter shall be so installed and protected that it is
not accessible to or capable of operation by persons other than
those duly authorized by the licensee.
A control point is an operating position which meets all of the
(1) The position must be under the control and supervision
of the licensee;
(2) It is a position at which the monitoring facilities are
(3) It is a position at which a person immediately responsi-
ble for the operation of the transmitter is stationed.
A dispatch point is any position from which messages may be
transmitted under the supervision of the person at a control
point who is responsible for the operation of the transmitter.
Dispatch points may be installed at an existing authorized sta-
tion without added authorization.
At each control point, the following facilities shall be installed:
(a) A carrier operated device which will provide continuous
visual indication when the transmitter is radiating; or,
in lieu thereof, a pilot lamp or meter which will pro-
vide continuous visual indication when the transmitter
control circuits have been placed in a condition to pro-
duce radiation: Provided however, That the provisions
of this subparagraph shall not apply to hand-carried or
pack-carried transmitters or to transmitters installed
(b) Equipment to permit the person responsible for the op-
eration of the transmitter to aurally monitor all trans-
missions originating at dispatch points under his super-
(c) Facilities which will permit the person responsible for
the operation of the transmitter either to disconnect
the dispatch point circuits from the transmitter or to
render the transmitter inoperative from any dispatch
point under his supervision; and
(d) Facilities which will permit the person responsible for
the operation of the transmitter to turn the transmitter
carrier on and off at will.
5.20 Remember, DON'T allow a radio station to:
1. Be operated by any person not holding a valid radio op-
erator license or permit of the class prescribed in the
rules and regulations of the Commission for the opera-
tion of such station;
2. Fail to identify itself at the times and in the manner pre-
scribed in the rules and regulations of the Commission;
3. Transmit any false or superfluous call contrary to regula-
tions of the Commission;
4. Operate on a frequency not authorized by the Commis-
sion for use by such station:
5. Interfere with any distress call or distress communica -
tion contrary to the regulations of the Commission;
6. Render a communication service not authorized by the
7. Operate with a type of emission not authorized by the
8. Operate with transmitting equipment other than that
authorized by the Commission;
9. Fail to respond to official communications from the
10. Operate a control point that fails to indicate when the
transmitter is on or one that does not have means to
monitor and disable an associated dispatch point;
11. Fail to keep a proper Log;
12. Deny access to properly identified representatives of the
13. Permit profane, indecent or obscene language;
14. Willfully permit damage to radio equipment;
15. Allow the interception, use or publication of the content
of a radio message without permission of the proper
16. Fail to exhibit a properly executed form 452-C (trans-
mitter ID card) as required.
5.21 Section 510 of the Communications Act of 1934 provides for-
feiture for violation of most of the above DONT'S as follows:
"The licensee of the station shall, in addition to any other
penalty prescribed by law, forfeit to the United States a sum
not to exceed $100. In the case of a violation of clause (2), (3),
(5), or (6) of this subsection, the person operating such station
shall, in addition to any other penalty prescribed by law, forfeit
to the United States a sum not to exceed $100. The violation
of the provisions of each numbered clause of the subsection shall
constitute a separate offense;
PROVIDED, that $100 shall be the maximum amount of for-
feiture liability for which the licensee or person operating such
station shall be liable under this section for the violation of the
provisions of any one of the numbered clauses of this subsection,
irrespective of the number of violations thereof, occurring within
ninety days prior to the date the notice of apparent liability
is issued or sent as provided in subsection (c) of this section:
AND PROVIDED FURTHER, That $500 shall be the maximum
amount of forfeiture liability for which the licensee or person
operating such station shall be liable under this section for all
violations of the provisions of this section, irrespective of the
total number, thereof, occurring within ninety days prior to the
date such notice of apparent liability is issued or sent as pro-
vided in subsection (c) of this section.
The forfeiture liability provided for in this section shall attach
only for a willful or repeated violation of the provisions of this
section by any licensee or person operating a station.
No forfeiture liability under this section shall attach after the
lapse of ninety days from the date of the violation unless within
such time a written notice of apparent liability, setting forth the
facts which indicate apparent liability, shall have been issued
by the Commission and received by such person, or the Com-
mission has sent him such notice by registered mail or by certi-
fied mail at his last known address. The person so notified of
apparent liability shall have the opportunity to show cause in
writing why he should not be held liable and, upon his request,
he shall be afforded an opportunity for a personal interview with
an official of the Commission at the Field Office of the Com-
mission nearest to the person's place of residence."
5.22 Section 501, Communications Act 1934, as amended states:
"Any person who willfully and knowingly does or causes or
suffers to be done any act, matter, or thing, in this Act prohibit-
ed or declared to be unlawful, or who willfully or knowingly
omits or fails to do any act, matter, or thing in this Act required
to be done, or willfully and knowingly causes or suffers such omis-
sion or failure, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished for such
offense, for which no penalty (other than a forfeiture) is pro-
vided in this Act, by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by im-
prisonment for a term not exceeding one year, or both; except
that any person, having been once convicted of an offense
punishable under this section, who is subsequently convicted of
violating any provision of this Act punishable under this section,
shall be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by im-
prisonment for a term not exceeding two years, or both."
5.23 Section 502, Communications Act 1934, as amended states:
"Any person who willfully and knowingly violates any rules,
regulation, restriction, or condition made or imposed by the
Commission under authority of this Act, or any rule, regulations,
restriction, or condition made or imposed by any international
radio or wire communications treaty or convention, or regula-
tions annexed thereto, to which the United States is or may here-
after become a party, shall, in addition to any other penalties
provided by law, be punished, upon conviction thereof, by a fine
of not more than $500 for each and every day during which such
5.24 Title 18, Section 1464, United States Code Annotated is speci-
fic on perhaps the Rule that, when violated, constitutes the
most noxious of all transmissions and about which the Commis-
sion is most particular:
"Whoever utters any obscene, indecent or profane language
by means of radio communication shall be fined not more than
$10,000.00 or imprisoned not more than two years, or both."
Section 6 Law Enforcement Communications
LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMUNICATIONS
A6.1 One of the major services in the Public Safety Radio group is
the Police Radio Service. The police function is also exercised
by other law enforcement agencies who do not employ the word
"police" in the usual sense, such as sheriff departments, highway
patrols, wildlife agencies, and even forestry, fire and highway de-
partments as they discharge their responsibilities in "policing"
and blocking off areas under their jurisdiction.
A6.2 However, law enforcement as discussed in this section is that
associated with crime in its usual sense: rape, theft, murder,
traffic violation, etc. The apprehension of today's criminal re-
quires fast and accurate communications between law enforce-
ment agencies at all levels and on both the local and national
A6.3 This special section emphasizes the peculiar needs of law en-
forcement communications techniques: to assist the smaller de-
partment in making the proper approach to the larger system;
to aid the larger department in wide-area and multi-station op-
eration; and to suggest proven methods in nation-wide communi-
A message which requires a law officer to perform a certain
act should be based on the request of a department, or one quali-
fied to act for a department, which has the legal authority to
make the request.
A6.5 The authority of a message is implicit in the signature of the
message. The signature is always that of the originating depart-
A6.6 Message Form:
A formal message is one constructed, transmitted and record-
ed according to a standard prescribed form (see Sec. 4). A formal
message should contain the following essential PARTS:
1. Preamble - message number, point of origin or agency
2. Address - to whom the message is directed.
3. Reference - to previous message, if any.
4. Text - the message.
5. Signature or Authority - department requesting the mes-
An informal message is one that is concerned with the routine
matters of a department and that does not require a designation
of authority other than that of rank or position. This type of
message is not constructed nor recorded according to a prescrib-
ed form. Most of the traffic in a system may be of this type
A6.7 Types of Messages:
1. Broadcast or Net Message: Directed to several extra-
system stations or to all stations in a system.
2. Dispatch. Value is limited in time and area, such as "At-
tempt to Locate," "Weather Reports," etc. This type of
message may be cancelled after a short period of time, or
may be filed without further action, depending on the
nature of the message.
3. Directed Message. A message sent from one agency to an-
other or from one station in a system to another specific
station in that system.
A6.8 Attempt to Locate Messages:
"ATL" messages should be screened closely to eliminate those
that are not definitely of an emergency nature. The information
listed below should be included in "ATL" messages:
1. Reasons for the "ATL": death message, serious illness in
family, emergency change in military orders, long overdue
at destination, etc.
2. Full name of the person to be located (of help sometimes
to know how many persons are traveling in the car. )
3. Information on the vehicle in which the person is travel-
4. Travel information: Point of departure, time of departure,
routes of travel, destination, other pertinent information.
5. Authority (must be a law enforcement agency).
6. Instructions: should probably be "call home," or the loca-
tion of the part of the traveling party who became sep-
arated from the group. If someone in the party has a sick-
ness, this information should be included in the message.
ATTEMPT TO LOCATE JOHN SMITH DRIVING
WHITE OVER RED 65 FORD
INDIANA LICENSE 11A5913 LEFT
INDIANAPOLIS 0830 (2-25-67) ENROUTE TO CHICAGO
VIA RTS 52 AND 41 ADVISE MR SMITH TO
CALL HOME FOR DEATH MESSAGE
AUTH S P INDIANAPOLIS IND RMM 1530 EST
A6.9 Criminal Act Messages:
The nature of the crime determines to a great degree where
a criminal act message is sent, i.e., to those stations, depart-
ments and states in the area affected. A statement must be
made by the originating authority as to whether a warrant has
been or will be filed. If for broadcast in other states, a statement
Must Be Included That Extradition Will Be Made. This is for
the protection of the arresting departments officers. This can
be written as "WAREX."
The progression of the criminal act message should be as
Color of hair and eyes
Description of clothing
(See Sec. 4 for Information Form)
If there is other information available it should be included
(such as car being used, etc.).
"WANTED FOR GRAND LARCENY
WARRANT ON FILE WILL EXTRADITE
(WAREX GRAND LARCENY) SEATTLE
JULY 14 RICHARD E DOW M W 47 5-10
185 BROWN HAIR AND BLUE EYES LIGHT
COMPLEXION SCAR OVER LEFT EYE
WEARING BLUE COAT WHITE SHIRT
GREY TROUSERS TAN SHOES
AUTH PD SEATTLE WASHINGTON AVH 1345 PST
Omit any item which is not KNOWN.
A6.10 Stolen Property:
Stolen property messages are distributed in much the same
manner as criminal act messages, i.e., to the areas affected. This
type of message should include:
Complaint (Grand Larceny, Breaking and Entering (B & E),
Time and Date
Article or list of identifiable articles followed by the descrip-
tion or any other information helpful in recovery and proper
"STOLEN PHOENIX HIGH SCHOOL PHOENIX
NIGHT OF MAY 12 ONE IBM TYPEWRITER
ELECTRIC BLACK FINISH SERIAL 223 886"
PD PHOENIX ARIZONA JJH 0015 MST
A6.ll Missing Persons:
Missing persons are a common problem of interest to all law
enforcement agencies. Most departments consider juveniles and
elderly persons as missing after 24 to 48 hours have passed. The
in between age group of adults is difficult to cope with unless
the person is a suspect in a crime, suspected victim of foul play,
demented, victim of amnesia or in ill health.
"MISSING TAYLORVILLE ILLINOIS SINCE 2100 JULY
14 JEAN DOE F W 15 5-2 BLONDE HAIR BLUE
EYES LIGHT COMPLEXION MOLE ON RIGHT CHEEK
BLUE PRINT DRESS TAN SHOES PARENTS WILL
AUTH SHF CHRISTIAN COUNTY ILL JAB 0915 CST
A6.12 Persons and Property In Custody:
When a message is being originated for any record or wanted
on subjects, and for identification of recovered property, the
complete information is of the utmost importance for positive
identification. As much information as possible should be in-
cluded in the first message, thus saving much lost motion and
time in clearing the case.
A6.13 Stolen Vehicles & License Plates:
Lost or stolen license plates are normally broadcast only at
the point of origin but should be cross-indexed in the stolen file.
In theft cases involving states using two license plates indicate if
both plates or only one was stolen.
Cars (or any vehicle) or plates registered in one state but
stolen in another should be reported to the state having register-
ed the vehicle.
The abbreviation "NSR" is nationally recognized as meaning
"no stolen report."
A6.14 Vehicle Identification:
Vehicle registration / license information is generally similar
in all states. The American Association of Motor Vehicle Ad-
ministrators is meeting with success in getting all of the states
to conform to certain standards.
One of the most important things to furnish when checking
license numbers interstate is the position of the dash in the
license (some states use a design which should be referred to as
a dash). This item is just as important as giving the correct
license number. The position of the dash in several states in-
dicates the issue of the license and it is therefore necessary in
order to check the records.
All states are confronted with the expiration of licenses, and
if a new registration is near, it is vital to include the year of
issue. Otherwise, it might involve checking two years of regis-
tration information or sending back the incorrect years in-
formation and then having to check the other year. The NATB
(National Auto Theft Bureau) book provides a list of license
expiration dates for all of the states, colors of plates, and much,
much more data that can be extremely valuable in vehicle iden-
When requesting registration / license information where it is
also desired that the owner be contacted for disposition, infor-
mation should be included with the original request as to the
condition of the vehicle for driving and whom to contact for
A6.15 National Auto Theft Bureau:
The National Auto Theft Bureau, 100 Williams Street, New
York, N. Y. 10038, maintains a stolen file by serial number on
all cars belonging to its supporting agencies (various insurance
companies). The bureau's New York office is listed in the TWX
directory or may be contacted by mail or telephone. If it does
not have a record of the serial number, it will trace the vehicle
from the factory shipment to the present owner. When making
a request to NATB New York all description and particulars
about the vehicle should be furnished with the original request.
The National Automobile Theft Bureau, Western Division,
175 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, Illinois 60604, Phone
312-922-0540 serves as a national clearing house for information
on stolen vehicles, by vehicle identification number, assembled
from NATB Divisional offices, and state and city police agencies.
In addition, a microfilm record of factory assembly and shipping
information on American made vehicles, beginning with 1960
and some 1962 year models, is maintained.
NATB Chicago will immediately institute tracing of any ve-
hicle referred to them, using their factory file in the event no
stolen report is found. NATB Chicago may be contacted by
LETS, TWX, mail or collect telephone. When contacting NATB
Chicago, all identification numbers should be furnished to facili-
A6.16 U. S. Bureau of Public Roads:
A relatively new section is being formed by the U. S. Bureau
of Public Roads, Washington, D. C., in which the driving records
will be compiled from all of the states. These records may be ob-
tained by telegram or letter to:
Director of Audits & Investigations
Matomic Building, Room 200
1717 H Street, N. W.
Washington, D. C.
A6,17 Description of Vehicles (See Sec. A6. 28):
Remember "CYMBALS" for automobile description when
writing messages involving vehicles (Sec. 4). A more detailed
breakdown on vehicle descriptions is as follows:
1. Reported stolen
2. Place stolen (name of town or area - street address is
3. Time and date stolen (between certain hours and dates,
C 4. Color (two-tone should be listed as "white over red"
multi-tone as "white over red over white," etc!)
Y 5. Year of manufacture
M 6. Make
B 7. Body style
L 8. License
S 9. Serial/motor number (seldom broadcast on the net, but
most departments cross index file on stolen cars and
need the serial/motor number for this purpose.)
10. Other data making identification easy.
11. Owners name and address (seldom broadcast on the ra-
dio net but should be available for the master file card
and is required on a teletypewriter message. It is usually
entered below the authority of the message."
Precautions should be used to be certain that all informa-
tion is correct. Incorrect Information Spells All Kinds of Trouble.
A6.18 Vehicle Description (Detailed) :
1. Description of stolen vehicles should be standardized as
much as possible as to color information. On 2-color ve-
hicles, give the top color, insert the word "over" and then
the body color. If 3-colors, insert in descending order.
Example: White, over Black, over Blue. Always use
primary colors. For this purpose primary colors are con-
sidered as consisting of red, yellow, green, blue, brown,
black, gray, aluminum, silver and white. Pastel shades of
the primary colors are often used but this procedure is
not recommended. Do not use descriptive terms such as
2. When giving the year of the motor vehicle it should be
remembered that all motor vehicles have been manufac-
tured since 1900; therefore, it is not necessary to give the
first two digits when describing the year of a motor
Example: Sixty-five, Dodge Dart, is sufficient to de-
scribe the vehicle instead of using nineteen sixty-five,
3. The make of the motor vehicle should consist of the manu-
4. It is important when giving the body style of a motor
vehicle to state whether "two-door" or "four-door," if
enclosed bodies. Use the word "convertible" or "station
wagon" when appropriate. Avoid the words "sedan" or
5. Because of the increase in the production of vehicles bear-
ing trade names, or sub-names different than the name of
the vehicle manufacturer, and inasmuch as these vehicles
have distinctive shapes and silhouettes, it is important
that the trade name or sub-name be given in description.
Plymouth Valiant, Barracuda
Ford Mustang, Thunderbird, Falcon
Chevrolet Corvair, Chevelle, Chevy II, Corvette
Oldsmobile Eighty-Eight, Ninety-Eight, Toronado
A6.19 Abandoned or Apprehended Vehicles:
It is very 5 important when checking on abandoned or appre-
hended vehicles ,to give full information in the first message,
This would ordinarily consist of the following information:
A. Color, year, make, body style, license and vehicle iden-
* tification number (VIN).
B. How long abandoned.
C. Where found.
D. Where held.
E. Running condition.
F. If any subjects are held, their complete description and
any charges against them.
G. Where subjects are held.
H. If vehicle will be released to owner on proof of owner-
I. Current storage and towing charges.
Failure to supply complete information will only result in con-
fusion, delays and incorrect replies.
A6.20 Additional Information and Corrections:
Additional information, or corrections and information receiv-
ed after an original message has been sent, should be transmit-
ted in the same manner and to the same area as the original,
along with the proper references to the original message. Nor-
mally the same department which originated the message would
be the originating authority on the added information or cor-
rection. It is permissible, however, for other departments to add
information under their own authority to the original message,
such as the fact that the same person is wanted by them, etc.
If the wanted message is originated by another state, then
another department may refer to the message in which the sub-
ject is listed as wanted, such as:
"SAME SUBJECT AS WANTED BY SP CUMBERLAND
MARYLAND IN THEIR TELETYPEWRITER MESSAGE
J-345 DATED JULY 15 1965"
A message can be cancelled ONLY by the originating authori-
ty, or by consent of the originating authority. The following are
exceptions to the rule:
1. When a message is a duplicate of another message already
originated and broadcast.
2. Lost or stolen license plates are automatically cancelled
at the time of expiration.
A message may be cancelled for any of the following reasons:
No longed wanted
No further value
Message in error
Message in duplicate of previously filed message
A message cancelled in error should not be reinstated but
should be rebroadcast under a new message number.
All departments should diligently try to cancel their messages
as soon as possible. Partial cancellations should be given when
one or more suspects described in a message have been appre-
hended, or part of a list of stolen articles has been recovered.
This can be done only by the originating authority or with per-
mission to cancel given by them.
Most departments maintain files in their identification and
record bureaus. If any department inquires (by mail or message),
regarding a message still active, it is to the advantage of every-
one to clarify and answer the inquiry as soon as possible. There
is always the chance that the inquiry might result in an appre-
hension. If it is learned that the subject has already been appre-
hended or is no longer wanted, and the original wanted message
has not been cancelled, then it is the responsibility of the origi-
nating authority to see that the proper cancellation or partial
cancellation is originated.
A6.22 Use of Tone Signals:
Many departments use certain groupings of tone signals pre-
ceding a broadcast of traffic to designate the type of traffic in
the message. The number of tones depends on the classification
A6.23 Daily Summary or Bulletin:
Most departments originate some form of written summary of
the net or master messages of their system for the day (major
crimes, stolen cars, etc. ) These summaries are very useful to the
policeman who has been off duty and wishes to review current
messages. If someone has heard a message which he desires to
read, the summary provides a quick reference for this purpose.
A6.24 Weather & Road Conditions Report:
Most departments compile unusual weather conditions occur-
ring in their area such as snow, storms, sleet storms, floods,
damaging winds, hail storms, severe thunder storms and torna-
dos. Arrangements are normally made for release of this informa-
tion to the news media.
The United States Weather Bureau reports any unusual storm
warnings so that their dissemination may be made to law en-
There are times when the Fingerprint Classification should be
included in messages for purpose of identification when other-
wise there may be some doubt. It is recommended that finger-
print analysis be either included or used in lieu of fingerprint
classification since several filing systems are in use (this rec-
ommendation is used by the APCO-IACP TWX information
directory). This is especially the case in regard to requesting
wanted checks since the department searching its files may have
several of the same or similar names and descriptions.
As a matter of information, the National Uniform Crime Re-
port manual as established by IACP and the FBI, comments on
fingerprint classification as follows:
To alleviate problems existent due to the various methods of
fingerprint classifications, the following method is to be used in
classifying fingerprints for entry into wanted persons format:
The fingers will be considered beginning with the right thumb
as #1 and continuing through #10 with the left thumb being
#6. Two characters will be used for each finger as shown below:
Ulnar loops two numeric characters
indicating ridge count
Tented arch TT
Radial loop RR
Inner whorl II
Meeting whorl MM
Outer whorl OO
Missing fingers XX
A6.26 Descriptions of Persons:
Remember the "JOHN DOE" photo appearing elsewhere in
this manual (Sec. 4). Omit items that are unknown.
The National Uniform Crime Report manual states specifi-
cally that Sex will be designated as "M" for male and "F" for
female, and, that Race will be described by abbreviations used
in the Uniform Crime Recording Program.
Mexicans who are not defined as
Indian, or other non-whites should
be described as "W"
Nationality should be entered when more pertinent or more
discreet identifier than race alone is required. Example: Mexi-
can - MM, Cuban - CC, etc. or indicate country or state of birth.
In general, law enforcement messages should have the fol-
lowing order of priority:
2. In Progress Criminal.
3. Hit and Run.
7. Routine Criminal.
8. Attempt to Locate.
10. Routine System.
Last minute information from NCIC indicates the following re-
quirements for printed inquiry involving automobile descrip-
tion. Rather than modify existing procedure at this time is con-
sidered more expedient to display both the established and the
new in order that differences may be known and so as to stimu-
late comment from the field as experience is gained:
C4. Color - NCIC uses 7 character field. All colors have a 3
letter code assigned and in the event the vehicle is two
tone, the colors are separted with a slash, i.e., WHI/-
BLK. If vehicle is a solid- color, 3 letters only are en-
tered in the field.
Y5. Year of manufacture - NCIC uses last 2 digits only.
M6. Make - NCIC codes all makes and uses 4 letter field.
B7. Body style - NCIC codes body style and uses 2 letter
L8. License - All licenses are entered deleting hyphens and
other symbols from number.
S9 Serial/motor number - These numbers are also enter-
ed deleting hyphens and other symbols.
Will the message in itself be clear to those receiving it'.
Have I included all message reference numbers and data?
Does it clearly contain all of the information requested?
Does it clearly state what action is to be taken?
Have I included information regarding warrants on file? (Man-
datory with interstate messages)
Has extradition information been included? (Mandatory with
Have the proper sequences been used on descriptions?
Would your department accept this message without question
when it was received?
LAW ENFORCEMENT COMMUNICATIONS
B6.1 The national Law Enforcement Teletypewriter System
(LETS) is a private teletypewriter system that is designed to
interconnect the nation's law enforcement agencies for the
prompt processing of state and interstate messages of a law en-
forcement nature. The system uses common carrier land line
B6.2 The LETS is comprised of approximately 4500 law enforce-
ment organizations who process their teletype messages through
a single communications center in each state served. These
states communication centers are then interconnected through
the national switching center in Phoenix, Arizona.
1. The success of LETS depends upon compliance with the
orders and regulations governing its use. All regula-
tions as set forth in this manual and in subsequent
orders which may be issued from time to time, concern-
ing the operation and maintenance of this system, must
be followed in every detail.
2. This system will not be used for personal business.
3. Traffic over the teletype system must be in the prescrib-
ed message form.
4. Local time will be used.
5. Teletype messages when authorized to be destroyed
should be destroyed BY FIRE in order to prevent them
from falling into the hands of unauthorized persons.
6. Messages dispatched on the police teletype net must be
on the authority of a duly constituted police agency.
7. Cases in which the complainant is only interested in the
recovery of property should not be dispatched unless a
warrant is secured. This is for the protection of the ar-
8. Bulletins, publications, telegrams, etc., received from
private detective agencies, bonding houses, bail bonds-
men, etc., will not be dispatched over this system.
9. The contents of any message shall not be divulged to
anyone other than one in an official capacity, unless so
directed by the message. The utmost care must be exer-
cised as practically all messages are of a confidential na-
ture and for official information only, and should only be
given to officials entitled to receive such information.
10. Teletype instruments should be located in such a manner
as to eliminate the possibility of unauthorized persons
having access to message information.
11. Teletype messages containing expressions such as "arrest
and hold," "hold for investigation," "detain for this
department/' "wanted as a suspect," etc., will not be
accepted. The name of the crime upon which the message
is based should be clearly specified. Also, it must be
stated if warrant has been, or will be, issued. Messages
which are to be transmitted to other states wherein an
arrest is requested should state whether or not extradi-
tion will be resorted to in case of apprehension.
12. When a stolen car which has been reported over LETS is
recovered it should not be released to any person until a
cancellation has been received from the police agency
that originated the message.
13. Messages requesting the location of overdue persons
should not be accepted except in cases of serious illness,
death or other bona fide emergencies.
14. The facilities of the police teletype net have been made
available to military authorities for the purpose of re-
porting the apprehension of deserters and other military
personnel arrested and held by military police units. The
military authorities have been advised that the system
cannot be used for the transmission of administrative
15. Information which has been received by telegram, letter,
or bulletin, calling for the apprehension of a criminal
and requesting the alarm to be broadcast over the police
teletype net, will be confined to the state receiving the
information. This will prevent duplicate alarms calling
for the arrest of a person or persons on the same crime.
16. Cancellation .... A cancellation may only be sent by the
station originating the alarm and must be under the
same file classification, if used. It is very important that
all messages be cancelled as soon as they have served
17. Only under rare circumstances should a message be sent
nation-wide (APB). No message should be sent beyond
the local area or "circuit net" unless the text of the mes-
sage contains definite information that requires "action"
on the part of the station or area to which it is directed.
Messages should list identifiable items only.
18. Weather and road information shall be confined to com-
munity of interest circuit or circuits and not be sent
nation-wide. This information should not be sent routine-
ly but only when adverse conditions exist or are immi-
1. While the majority of traffic handled by teletype consists
of registration checks and directed messages, it provides
a convenient means of delivering other types of messages
such as net messages (stolen vehicles, etc.).
2. However, it should be emphasized that in the event of an
armed robbery, hit and run, recent car thefts and other
types of criminal acts of recent occurrence, the information
should first be broadcast on the radio for the benefit of
patrol cars and on point-to-point for those stations who
do not have teletype. After this has been done, it can then
be put on the area teletype net. Traffic involving acci-
dents, requests for ambulances and /or wreckers should
also be given by radio.
3. When originating a message involving the description of
a person or vehicle, it is the responsibility of the origina-
ting station to follow the"Standard Message Form" adopt-
ed and approved by A.P.C.O: and I.A.C.P
It is necessary that the originating station follow this pro-
cedure because the messages received by each relay center
are not retyped. When you originate a message a tape is
cut for the purpose of relaying the message. This tape is
put on a tape sending unit, and after coding in the de-
sired agency or department, the tape actually sends the
message. The relay center does not retype your message.
The message, as sent by your department, is relayed word
for word. It is important to use proper sequence structure
and not insert anything extra in your message. After the
tape has been once cut, it cannot be changed
1. The Telephone Company will train the LETS operators in
the physical operation of the teletype machine. This is nor-
mally done before the start of service if the equipment is
on the customer's premises. Retraining may be arranged
for by calling the teletype consultant (collect) at a num-
ber given to you by the telephone company.
1. CPSC: Centralized Plant Service Center.
2. CPSC is a centralized reporting center for all law enforce-
ment teletype customers having critical special service
circuits. CPSC will operate on a twenty-four hour, seven
day per week basis.
3. If you discover that your machine is out of order notify
another teletype user on your circuit by radio, and request
that they notify all users on your circuit that your ma-
chine is out of order. As soon as your machine is back in
order, notify all stations on your circuit that you are
back in service.
4. It is your responsibility to supply and change paper and
ribbon when needed.
5. Notify in advance all stations on the network that your
teletype will be out of service when it is necessary to:
1. Change paper
2. Change ribbon
3. Make a routine maintenance check
6. When the above work is completed send another report
that your machine is back in service. Failure to do so may
result in your department missing a message. DO NOT
7. The Telephone Company will inspect and service your
teletype machine periodically.
B6.7 Permissible Communications :
1. Your teletype machine is leased by your department for
communications essential to the official business of your
department. Communications of a personal nature be-
tween operators (non-departmental business) is forbidden,
B6.8 Message Services Available:
1. Stations in the LETS System will deliver, free of charge,
messages originated by law enforcement agencies and the
National Auto Theft Bureau (NATB), to any law enforce-
ment agency in the United States excluding Hawaii and
2. However, it should be pointed out that, when forwarding
teletype messages, the State Point of Entry Stations act
only as switching centers and do not edit or rearrange
3. Success of LETS depends on the compliance with orders
and regulations governing its use which are established by
the National Teletype Committee and approved by APCO
and IACP. All regulations as set forth in this manual, and
in subsequent orders which may be issued from time to
time concerning the operation of this system, must be
followed in every detail.
4. When originating messages pertaining to wanted persons,
information on one or more of the following items must
be included in the text of the message, in addition to the
normal information furnished:
a. Warrant Information :
Messages pertaining to persons wanted for criminal acts
must state the specific crime for which the person is
wanted and whether the warrant charge is a felony or
b. Extradition Information:
Messages directed to out-of-state agencies involving per-
sons wanted for criminal acts must include the state-
ment that they will be extradited if apprehended.
c - Transportation Information:
Messages dealing with persons wanted for non-criminal
acts (missing persons, etc.) must contain the statement
that transportation will be furnished
B6.9 Message Construction:
1. Every teletype message transmitted over the system must
be in the prescribed form. It is realized that the forms
must be flexible due to the conditions existing at the time
a crime is committed, but it is believed that this proced-
ure will assist every police department in the performance
of its duty, and minimize the danger of unnecessary delay
in handling the original message, as well as reduce the
need for added information and replies. It will also give
the maximum protection to the police officer when he acts
on the information received over the teletypewriter system.
2. Standard message form (Approved by APCO & I AGP)
3 PD SAN DIEGO CALIF 2-24-66
PD UTICA NEW YOEK
0700 PST 2-23-66 VANS MARKET 2230 OCEANSIDE
BLVD THIS CITY SUSPECT JOHN WILLIAM
MORRIS M/W DOB 2-23-27 5-8 185 BROWN HAIR
BLUE EYES DRIVING BLUE 65 FORD MUSTANG
CALIF JJJ 123 VIN 5F07A139076 BELIEVED
ENROUTE TO 1234 SOUTH HARMONY AVE. YOUR
CITY WAREX FELONY
SGT J D BEALE
PD SAN DIEGO CALIF JWM 0824PST
Item 1 - Message Number - Each message transmitted
should bear an identifying message number.
Item 2 - Name of originating department (AHP)
(CAL) (If file number is used it "shall be in-
serted in space between number and name of
Item 3 - Date message is transmitted (use number to
signify month) (2/20/66).
Item 4 - If message is an added information, correc-
tion, reply or cancellation, the proper words
must be typed after date to identify the type
Item 1 - Destination - This directs the message to its
proper point. If the originator wants the mes-
sage to be sent to all points on the system,
the message is sent APB. If to a particular
point, he designates by name the department
he wishes the message sent, e.g., PD Roanoke,
If the sender wishes to dispatch a message
to an agency or department and he is not
sure of its location or if it is associated with
the system, he should dispatch the message
to that agency by name, e.g., PD Leipsic, N.J.
Then send to the State Point of Entry for re-
lay or to the closest station on the system
requesting the message to be forwarded to the
Item 1 - Reference - Applicable only when there has
been previous traffic on the same subject. List
the original message numbers of both sending
and receiving stations, and the dates messages
were transmitted. File (stolen car) if appli-
4. Body of Message:
Complete description and other pertinent information.
Be brief, but give complete details and action requested.
B. Time and location of crime (24 hour time identify
time zone - EST, MST, CST)
C. Name of person wanted or missing in cases of motor
vehicles - tag numbers
D. Descriptions - Persons, motor vehicles, property
E. Warrant and extradition. Provide warrant number.
5. NOTE: Description of Persons - The APCO description
form includes the following: Sex, Race, Age, Height, and
Weight, abbreviated M-W-30-5-6-175 followed by Hair,
Eyes, Complexion, Build, Scars and Marks, and Clothing
from head to foot (See Sec. 4).
6. Description of Motor Vehicles - The APCO standard de-
scription form describes motor vehicles in the following
order: color, year, make, body style, license number and
motor or serial number (See Sec. 4).
7. Warrant - Messages dealing with wanted persons should
state the specific crime for which the individual is wanted,
and whether charge is a felony or misdemeanor. The ab-
breviation Warex should appear at the end of the text.
8. Extradition - Each message dealing with wanted persons
should include a statement regarding extradition.
9. Last Line - Conclusion
Item 1 - Authority - The complete name of the depart-
Item 2 - Last name or initials of dispatcher
Item 3 - Time - Use the 24 hour clock system and in-
clude time zone, e.g., 1730EST or 1730CST,
etc. Day light saving time - 1730EDT or
10. In all teletype messages the following spacing is required:
743 SP CHARLESTON W VA 4-10-65 ADDED
REF 736 3-31-65 GB JOHN BROWN
SUBJECT WEARING GRAY HAT - BROWN SHOES
DRIVING DK GREEN 63 BUICK SEDAN NJ
LICENSE UNKNOWN - BELIVED ENROUTE TO
NEW YORK CITY OR HOBOKEN NJ SUBJECT IS
DIABETIC AND WILL REQUIRE TREATMENT
SP CHARLESTON W VA FLANAGAN 0945EST
11. First Line
a. Three spaces between message number and station
name (If file number is used insert between number
and name utilizing same spacing)
b. Three spaces between station name and date
c. One space between date and message classification
12. Second Line
a. Addressee or APB
13. Third Line
a. If the message refers to a previous message, the third
line shall be started two lines below the address, and
give the reference information, i.e., message number,
file number, if used, date the message was dispatched,
leaving one space between each.
Body of Message - A brief concise message without
14. Last Line
a. The last line will be started two lines below the body
of the message.
b. Three spaces between the authority and the opera-
tor's last name or initials.
c. Three spaces between operator's name and time sent.
15. The following spacing is required for all teletype messages:
First line (Preamble)
a. Three spaces between the message number and the
b. Three spaces between the station identifier and the
Second line (address) (started two lines below the pre-
Third line (Text or body of message). (Started two lines
below the address.)
a. If the message refers to a previous message the first
line of the text should contain the preamble of the
The text of the message should be single line spaced
and should be brief and concise without paragraphs.
Last line (Authority and Operator Service) (Started two
lines below the text).
a. Three spaces between the authority and the operator's
last name or initials.
b. Three spaces between operator's service and time sent.
Section 7 Civil Defense Communications
CIVIL DEFENSE COMMUNICATIONS
7.1 The national Civil Defense organization operates under the
office of the Secretary of the Army.
7.2 The national Civil Defense structure is divided into Regions,
each of which serves a number of states. The national structure
terminates at the state level, each state being individual units
separate from the national organization.
7.3 Each state has an Office or Department of Civil Defense es-
tablished by some form of State legislation or administrative
order. The State CD Offices have a master plan of survival that
is complementary to the Region plan on the national level and
to the state subdivision plans on the local level.
7.4 Two important functions of the state offices are those of plan-
ning and supply. Their plans are so drawn as to utilize the cap-
abilities of existing state agencies and political subdivisions in
a manner that the every day activities of these entities are best
coordinated to meet the sudden demands of state or national
7.5 Public Safety communications are the nerve center of the
state Civil Defense effort, especially to the extent that they
furnish a back-up service to the normal means of communica-
tions. Public Safety Communications are thus an existing, func-
tioning, organized communications capability that is in daily
use and that can be immediately utilized to consolidate, coordi-
nate, and unify the survival efforts and facilities of the Public
Safety agencies for Civil Defense purposes.
7.6 One of the most important CD responsibilities of Public Safety
communications is that of disseminating initial attack warnings
and subsequent condition reports. Attack warnings originate
in the North American Air Defense Command (NORAD) and
warning messages are transmitted over the National Warning
System (NAWAS) to designated warning points that are lo-
cated at several strategic points in each state. The Public Safety
communications systems receive warning messages from these
key warning points. In some instances they are received by relay
rather than direct.
7.7 There are possibilities of errors being made during the trans-
lation of state CD messages as they leave the CD system and
enter the state Public Safety systems since CD terminology and
Public Safety terminology are usually not alike.
7.8 There is also the possibility of error in the interchange of CD
communications between Public Safety systems where proce-
dures are unknown or too dissimilar.
7.9 One of the purposes of this manual is to assist in the reduction
of these errors of translation. As more Public Safety agencies
adopt these recommended procedures, a more common ground is
obtained upon which to approach the state offices of Civil De-
fense for mutual training purposes. It is recommended that the
Public Safety communications services make it a particular
practice to invite CD personnel to their communications training
seminars. Civil Defense personnel are urged to make every effort
to adopt more of these procedures into their every day routine
communications so that their terminology may be more com-
patible with the requirements of the Public Safety services.
7.10 Section 89.17 of the FCC Rules reads as follows:
"A station licensed under this part may transmit communi-
cations necessary for the implementation of civil defense activi-
ties assigned such station by the local civil defense authorities
during an actual or simulated emergency, including drills and
tests: PROVIDED, That such communications relate to the
activity or activities which form the basis of the licensee's eligi-
bility in the radio service in which authorized."
This requirement is considered to be met in the sense that the
enabling act that establishes a state office of Civil Defense is one
of a Public Safety nature. As such, when a civil defense function
has been assigned to a Public Safety department by competent
authority in an established civil defense operational plan, the
accomplishment of that function becomes 'an official activity'
of the department concerned and the department's radio system
may be utilized in such accomplishment.
The foregoing is not construed, however, to permit the com-
plete pre-emption of a department's radio system for civil de-
fense purposes if the department has remaining a legal responsi-
bility for the discharge of duties not contained in the civil de-
fense plan. Further it is noted that, except in the Local Govern-
ment and some areas of the Special Emergency Radio Services,
civil defense activities alone do not constitute radio service
In this jet age nothing is as important as fast and accurate com-
munications. Language is a barrier to any form of information ex-
change. This manual teaches a common language in the form of pre-
scribed methods and signals which, if universally adopted, would mean
a substantial increase in Public Safety departmental efficiency and
The success of this manual rests upon voluntary compliance. Volun-
tary effort is based upon desire and there is no doubt in the minds of
the writers of this manual but that every Public Safety agency de-
sires improved communications ability both internal and external. It
is hoped that this manual will be the causal means of the desire for
the required effort.
One more thing needs to be said. An end requires a means and in
the world of Public Safety radio the end of two-way radio requires the
means of the radio frequency spectrum.* As pointed out in Section 5,
the spectrum is public domain, like the air we breathe. It cannot be
bought and sold in the market place like the hardware and right-of-
ways of land line circuits. As a radio frequency user, each Public Safety
Department should, and must be, initially and continuously concerned
with the welfare of the spectrum.
The frequency spectrum is finite. There are just so many frequen-
cies available and the competition for them is fierce. Nearly every
frequency now being used in the Public Safety Radio Services, yours
included, has been viewed and passed upon for technical adequacy and
practical application by public safety communications employees who
serve as National Frequency Coordinators. These people donate their
services in order that your radio system may operate at its best effi-
ciency and be as well protected from interference as the present fre-
quency congestion permits.
These people, and the organizations to whom they belong, deserve
your support. You should be familiar with, and participate in, those
voluntary national communications organizations that work for your
benefit. You need to be advised, for some day if you should need a
frequency, and none is to be had, ignorance of the cause of that lack
will be no excuse. The Federal Communications Commission works to
protect your communications interests as well as the interest of others
and their offices are open every working day. You, or your representa-
tive, should know the way to the doors.
The Office of Law Enforcement Assistance is anxious to help in
law enforcement communications matters of exhibited value. APCO is
anxious to assist you in any Public Safety communications matter.
That is our purpose.
APB - All points bulletin
ATL - Attempt to locate
ATTN - Attention
AUTH - Message sent on authority of
BLK - Black
BRO - Brown
C - Chinese
CANCEL . Cancellation
CAPT - Captain
CDC - Call directing code
COL . Colonel
COMM - Commissioner
COMP - Complexion
CP -Chief of Police
CPL - Corporal
CC - Cuban
DEFY - Deputy
DET - Detective
DIR - Director
DK . Dark
DL - Driver's License
DOA - Dead on arrival
DOB -Date of birth
ETA - Estimated time of arrival
F - Female
FILE - File Classification Number
FPA - Fingerprint analysis
GA - Go Ahead
HP - Highway Patrol
I - Indian
ID - Identification
INSPR - Inspector
J - Japanese
OLN - License Number
LIEUT - Lieutenant
M - Male
M/SGT - Master Sergeant
MM . Mexican
MED - Medium
MTR - Motor
- All other
OCA - Originating Station Case Number (computer)
OFR - Officer
OPR - Operator
PD - Police Department
PTL - Patrolman
REF - Refer to message
ROIR - Reply only if record
SER - Serial
SGT - Sergeant
SO - Sheriffs Office
SHRF - Sheriff
SP - State Police
S/SGT - Staff Sergeant
SUPT - Superintendent
TPR - Trooper
T/SGT - Technical Sergeant
TT - Teletype
TX - Land line telephone
VIN - Vehicle Identification Number
WAREX - Warrant issued, will extradite
WX - Weather
NOTE: If in doubt, do not abbreviate. Spell out the complete word.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT - The act by which one operator signifies to
another that a message has been received.
ADDED INFORMATION MESSAflF. - A message sent to supplement
a previous message and referred thereto.
ADDRESS - The name of the department to which a message is di-
rected or sent. It follows the preamble in the message format and it is
-placed two lines below the preamble,
AUTHORITY - The Department responsible for the origination of a
BELL SIGNAL - The teletypewriter bell used to attract attention to
the instrument for messages of extreme importance.
(a) BROADCAST - The transmission of a message to the coded area
(b) DIRECT MESSAGE - A message addressed to a specific point
or points on the system.
(c) APB - A message direction indicating that the message is to be
sent to all points.
CANCELLATIONS - A message which cancels another, without delay.
CARRIER - Radio wave radiated by a transmitter without modulation.
CALL DIRECTING CODE - Usually a two letter identifier assigned
to a teletype machine. Required to be transmitted in order to turn on
a teletype unit.
DATA - Request for full registration information, stolen or wanted
on the following license or VIN (Vehicle Identification Number).
GAIN CONTROL - A control to vary the amount of modulation of a
radio transmitter. The volume control on a receiver is also called a
GO AHEAD - Used as an invitation for the other station to reply
when carrying on a two-way conversation between two stations.
MESSAGE NUMBER - The first part of the preamble. The number
used to identify a message from all others sent by a station.
MESSAGE TIME - The figures placed on a message after the sender
to indicate the time the message was sent.
MIKE - Microphone.
MODULATION - Strength of your voice applied to the microphone.
MONITOR - Listen to a radio receiver.
OPERATOR - Any person who transmits a message.
ORIGINAL MESSAGE - A message to which any subsequent message
on the same subject must be referred and attached.
PHONE TRAFFIC - Messages handled by radiotelephone.
PREAMBLE - The first line of a communication. It contains the mes-
sage number, station identifier and date. Used as the reference when
replying to a previous message.
REFERENCE NUMBER - Used to identify a previous message. It is
placed in the first line of the text and consists of the message number,
file number if used, station identifier, and date of original message.
SENDER - The surname or initials of the operator who originally
transmits a message.
SERVICE - Servicing a message means entering on the message the
time and date sent or received, station received from, or to whom sent
and the operator's initials. For teletype messages it means the time
sent and operator's initials.
SPEAKER - Device that produces sound from your radio receiver.
SQUELCH CONTROL - The control to eliminate receiver noise when
no signal is being received. It should be set to just eliminate this noise.
Turning it further will reduce the receiving range of the receiver.
STATION IDENTIFIER - The radio station FCC assigned call sign.
Used in the preamble following the message number in a radio mes-
sage. In a teletype message it is an abbreviation of the station's name.
TEXT - The body of a message. That portion of a message that con-
tains the information being transmitted from one department to an-
other. Started two lines below the address.
TRAFFIC - A message, or communications between stations.
TT - Teletype. Sometimes called PLTT for private line teletype.
TWX - A teletypewriter exchange service which is furnished on sub-
stantially the same basis as long distance telephone service.
UNIT IDENTIFIER - An identifier assigned by the licensee to a mo-
bile station for exact identification as "Car 3" or "797", etc. Not
same as or eliminating need for the FCC assigned station identifier
or call sign.
Reprinted from The APCO Bulletin
An "I" for an "I" does not consti-
tute justice in radio communica-
Section A3.33 of the Manual
touches on this matter of being im-
personal on the air. This, too, is an
acquired art which requires prac-
tice, for all of us are guilty of the
desire to use "I" more than any
other pronoun in the language.
Again, the object of this require-
ment is to promote, or enhance, the
total system rather than any of its
parts; to avoid clouding the central
thought of the transmission by per-
sonal coloration, to lessen the
chance of destroying the meaning
of the message as intended by the
originating authority, to play down
people and play up accuracy and
speed of action, to avoid familiarity.
Perhaps one of the best methods
of constructing a neuter gender for
the system is to substitute a Ten
Signal for "I." For example, instead
of "I will do it," substitute "10-4."
Instead of "I don't think so," say
"10-74." Instead of "I'll make the
phone call" say, "Will 10-21;"
rather than "Shall I contact Unit
99" say, "10-4 to 10-68 Unit 99?"
Dropping the "I" requires de-
voted practice, as does learning how
to delete words from a rambling
communication and thus convert it
into a terse, solid- message that
fairly reeks with skill, training, or-
ganization, and authority. You'll
have to work at this, and if you
reatty know your Ten Signals you
will have no undue difficulty.
Section A3.34 is a sequel to the
above discussion: since we labor to
(A continuing seminar based on the APCO Operating Procedure Manual
- 16,000 printed to date)
avoid the familiar "I," we should
in the same context endeavor to
avoid assuming or implying famili-
arity with others. Never, never,
never communicate on the air with
mobile units and use names, especi-
ally first names, unles you are com-
municating about other than the
mobile unit operator; in this case,
use titles or proper names - no mat-
ter how well acquainted you may
be with the person in question. You
are engaged in formal communica-
In order to blanket the above dis-
cussions within one concept, per-
haps we can make use of semantics
and state that there is a difference
between "talking" and "communi-
cating" in the sense that, orally,
you must talk in order to communi-
cate but that you do not always
communicate when you talk, and
that when you talk you can be in-
dulging in any form of oral contact
but that when you communicate
you are engaged in a specific and
informational means of audible con-
tact that most explicitly excludes
any and all vague facets of "visit-
ing," and which most emphatically
attempts to omit any inclusion of
the radio operator himself.
Sections A3.35 - 6 should be con-
sidered in concert and in examining
them we find a definite similarity
between the first phrases of the
first sentences of each: "Never
change a single word in a formal
message -" and "A station originat-
ing a formal message -."
Just what is a "formal" message?
A formal message is one which has
been "formed" from a mass of re-
lated information in accord with a
prescribed procedure, or, a formal
message is one which has been "re-
duced" or "composed" from a mass
of related information and placed
on a prescribed form. Either way
you look at it, it means the same
thing. The basic concept is order:
A formal message is one which is
transmitted and received in a pre-
scribed order or succession of in-
formation bits. A formal message is
one which a receiver can anticipate
in a routine fashion.
BULLETIN February, 1968
A printed message form is the
typical method for establishing the
information in a prescribed routine
manner and this is one manner in
which a message is different from
a transmission. We are here again
threatened with semantic shadings
but perhaps it is sufficient to state
that while one transmission may be
a (short) message it is normally to
be expected that a message will be
composed of several transmissions,
and, a transmission can be other
than a portion of a formal (com-
posed) message. A transmission is
made any time the transmitter is
placed on the air, a message is the
total information placed on the air
in a prescribed manner by means
of one or more transmissions.
Never change a single word in a
formal message which is received
for relay purposes! This require-
ment embodies another attempt to
exclude the "I's" of the system.
Don't color the message with what
you think! Let it be received at its
destination in its pure form. How-
ever, if you are convinced that the
message is in error, originate your
own message to follow the first mes-
sage, safe in the knowledge that it,
too, will reach its destination with-
out being colored by what some later
operator down the line may "think"
about what you "thought" about the
first message. By this method the
first message will be received in its
unadulterated form and the termi-
nal station will be afforded the.
means of making a judgment be-
tween it and your subsequent mes-
sage. If you color the first message
you deny the destination station
Think twice before you submit
your thoughts on a message. Be
sure you know what the message
really means before you act; many
messages are in reality "key
phrases" that connect or complete
information that is in the minds
only of the originator and the re-
ceiver of the message. In other
words, it is probable that these
people know something that you
(Next month - MESSAGE FORMS)
APPENDICES B THROUGH F
Title pages and tables of content for five training
guides and manuals produced and/or published with
Law Enforcement Assistance Act support appear in the
following pages. Inquiries regarding availability of
these publications should be made to the respective
LEAA GRANT 204
MANUAL FOR POLICE
In the State of New York
NELSON A. ROCKEFELLER
ARTHUR CORNELIUS, JR.
Superintendent of State Police
Prepared and published by the New York State Police
as a service to Law Enforcement in the
State of New York
New York State Police, Public Security Building
State Campus, Albany, N. Y. 12226
September 1, 1967
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Section Title of Section Page
1. References and Citations 1
2. New York State Police 2
3. Civics and Government 4
4. Police Records 5
5. Police Administration 8
6. Public Relations 10
7. The New Penal Law 16
8. Culpability, Parties to Crime 22
9. Classification of Offenses 26
10. Disposition of Offenders 28
11. Defenses and the Use of Force 33
12. Courts and Court Procedure 40
13. Informations 46
14. The Grand Jury and Indictment 48
15. Proceedings After Indictment 49
16. Family Court Act 49
17. Procedures Re Children and Youths 51
18. Arrests and Bail 55
19. Abortion and Related Crimes 79
20. Accidents 81
21. Adultery 93
22. Advertisements 94
23. Aircraft 97
24. Alcoholic Beverage Control Law 99
25. Animals (Including Rabies) 104
26. Arson and Fires 113
27. Assault, Menacing, Reckless Endangerment 122
28. Attempts 129
29. Attorneys 130
30. Auctioneers 133
31. Bad Checks and Forged Checks 134
32. Bigamy 139
33. Billiard and Pocket Billiard Rooms 141
34. Bribery and Related Crimes 143
35. Burglary 153
36. Canals 159
37. Carnivals, Circuses and Fairs 160
38. Children 162
39. Civil Rights 171
40. Communications 176
Section Title of Section Page
41. Compounding a Crime; Compromise of Crime 198
42. Conservation Law 200
43. Conspiracy 201
44. Corporate Official Misconduct 203
45. Creating a Hazard 204
46. Criminal Anarchy 205
47. Criminal Contempt 206
48. Criminal Facilitation 207
49. Criminal Mischief and Reckless Endangerment of Prop-
50. Criminal Nuisance 213
51. Criminal Solicitation 215
52. Criminal Tampering 217
53. Criminal Trespass 219
54. Disorderly Conduct, Harassment and Loitering 223
55. Dangerous Drugs 228
56. Election Laws 241
57. Endangering Incompetent 246
58. Escape and Detention Facilities 246
59. Explosives and Bombs 249
60. Extortion and Coercion 260
61. False Insurance Claims 266
62. False Written Statements 267
63. Federal Crimes 272
64. Fingerprints and Identification 275
65. Firearms and Weapons 282
66. Fireworks 303
67. Forgery and Slugs 305
68. Fortune Telling 313
69. Frauds 314
70. Gambling 327
71. Highways 338
72. Hindering Prosecution 341
73. Homicides 343
74. Hotels, Motels, Other Temporary Residences 353
75. Impersonation 356
76. Incest 361
77. Intoxication 362
78. Investigations *. 366
79. Junk Dealers 396
80. Kidnapping and Custodial Interference 397
81. Laboratory Examinations 402
82. Larceny 406
83. Lost and Found Property 424
Section Title of Section Page
84. Marriage Violations 428
85. Mental Hygiene Law 430
86. Misapplication of Property 432
87. Navigation Law 433
88. Obscenity and Pornography 453
89. Observation and Patrol 457
90. Obstructing Governmental Administration 464
91. Offensive Exhibitions 465
92. Official Misconduct 466
93. Party Lines 468
94. Pawnbrokers 468
95. Peddlers 470
96. Perjury and Sworn False Statements 472
97. Physicians and Dentists 475
98. Private Investigators 478
99. Prostitution 478
100. Public Health 484
101. Public Lewdness and Exposure 487
102. Public Safety 489
103. Railroads and Railroad Police 491
104. Refusing to Aid a Peace Officer 493
105. Rape 494
106. Report Writing and Handling 497
107. Riots and Unlawful Assembly 503
108. Road Blocks 506
109. Robbery 508
110. Sabbath Laws 511
111. School and School Buses 513
112. Search and Seizure 517
113. Sepulture (Dead Bodies and Graves) 531
114. Sex Offenses (Including Sodomy) 534
115. Stolen Property 538
116. Subpoenas 541
117. Suicide 542
118. Theft of Services 544
119. Traffic 550
121. Unauthorized Use of a Vehicle 559
122. Unlawful Imprisonment 561
123. Unlawful Disclosure 562
124. Usury 563
125. Tax Laws 565
126. Wanted Persons 570
127. Descriptions Persons or Property 573
128. Religious Services Disrupting or Disturbing 576
LEM GRANT 081
Law Enforcement Officers
Prepared by the
Kansas Peace Officers Handbook Committee
Published by the
League of Kansas Municipalities
112 West Seventh Street
This book is the property of
and is for official use only
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CODE OF ETHICS iv
I. THE LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER... 1
II. GENERAL RULES OF CONDUCT 5
III. JURISDICTION 10
Types of Offenses 10
Federal Violations 10
State Law Violations 11
City Ordinance Violations 11
Multiple Violations by One Act 11
Juvenile Offenders 12
IV. CRIMINAL PROCEDURE 13
V. CRIME PREVENTION 15
Practical Crime Prevention Activities 16
Suggested Methods of Educating the Public 16
VI. NOTE TAKING 17
Basic Rules 17
Suggestions on What to Include 17
VII. REPORT WRITING 19
Contents of a Good Report 19
Complaint Reports 20
Investigative or Offense Reports 21
Accident Reports 21
Summons and/or Arrests 22
VIII. ARREST 23
Defined: What Constitutes Arrest 23
Official Inquiry; Request for Display of
Driver's License ; Not Arrest 23
General Duties in Making Arrest 23
Time of Arrest 24
Persons Authorized to Issue Warrants
for Arrest 24
Procedure for Issuance of Warrant for Arrest 24
Arrest with a Warrant 24
Authority to Arrest Without a Warrant 25
Resisting Arrest; Use of Force 25
Arrest Immunity 25
Duties After Arrest 26
Officer Exceeding Authority 26
IX. MECHANICS OF ARREST AND
HANDLING PRISONERS 27
Elements Necessary for an Arrest 27
Responsibilities in Making an Arrest 27
MECHANICS OF ARREST AND
HANDLING PRISONERS Continued
Making Initial Contact 28
Officer's Manner in Making Arrest 28
Use of Force 28
Use of Firearms 28
Considerations in Arresting Various
Types of Persons 28
Arrest on Street (Person Not in Car) 30
Arrest of Subject in Automobile 30
Arrest at Home, Public Gatherings, Office,
or Place of Business 31
Raid Situations 32
Search of Person 33
Booking or Recording Arrest 34
Valuables and Other Personal Property 34
Criminal Identification 35
X. SEARCHES AND SEIZURES 36
Fourth Amendment, United States
Searches and Seizures Generally 36
Persons Authorized to Issue Search Warrants 36
Purpose of Search Warrant 36
Explanation of Terms 37
Obtaining a Search Warrant 37
Finding Required by Magistrate 37
Necessary Description 37
Execution of Warrant by Officer Designated 37
Command of the Warrant 38
Deviation from Command of the Warrant. . 38
Time of Search and Seizure 38
Use of Force - 38
Duties of Officer in Taking Property 38
Time of Execution and Return of Warrant;
Written Inventory 39
City Ordinance Violations; Search Warrants 39
Search Incidental to Arrest 39
Search of Moving Vehicles 40
Search by Consent : 41
Consent by Owner, Landlord or
Person in Control 41
Situations Where There Is No Search
Authority Required 41
Situations 'Where There Is No Seizure 42
Seach of the Person 42
XI. CRIME SCENE INVESTIGATION 43
Protection of the Crime Scene 43
Recognition of the Evidence 44
Collection and Preservation of the Evidence 45
Expert Examination of Evidence . . . 48
XII. TECHNIQUES OF ROAD BLOCKS. 50
Road Block Plan . . 50
Responsibility of Calling and Cancelling
Road Block 50
Types of Crimes for Which Road Block
May Be Requested 50
Procedure for Road Block Plan 51
TECHNIQUES OF ROAD BLOCKS
Duties at the Block Point 51
O Conduct 53
XIII. ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION 54
General Procedure at All Accidents 54
Interviewing Drivers, Witnesses, Passengers. . 55
Examining Scene 56
Measurements and Diagrams 56
Hit-and-Run Investigation 58
Questioning Owner (or Driver) 59
What Accidents Must Be Reported
by State Law 60
XIV. USE OF CHEMICAL TESTS IN DWI
Officers Authorized to Request Test 61
Necessary Conditions and Reasonable
Grounds for Request 61
Authorized Chemical Tests 61
Consent to Test 61
Duties of Officer 62
Failure to Explain Consequences 62
Persons Authorized to Withdraw Blood 62
Rights of the Arrested Operator 62
Officer's Duty After Refusal 62
Test Procedure Separate from Criminal
XV. LEGAL GUIDELINES FOR QUESTION-
ING SUSPECTS 64
Fifth Amendment, U.S. Constitution 64
Sixth Amendment, U.S. Constitution .... 64
K.S.A. 60-425 64
Confessions or Admissions Generally 64
Reason for Need To Be Voluntary 64
Rights of Accused 55
Duties of Accused 65
Recommended Practice 65
Situations Where Warning Unnecessary. ... 66
XVI. METHODS OF INTERVIEW AND
XVII. EFFECTIVE METHODS OF TESTIFYING
IN COURT 70
Requisites of Effective Testimony 70
Definition of Evidence 7Q
Types of Evidence * ' 79
Inadmissible Evidence (Improper Testimony ) 71
Preparation for Testifying . . 73
Trial \\\\ 73
XVIII. SPECIAL PROBLEMS ....... 77
Probable Cause " 77
Misuse of Authority 77
City Traffic Ordinance Violations . ." ." .' .* | ." ." 79
SUMMARY * 81
LEAA DISSEMINATION PROJECT 67-26
MOBS AND RIOTS
FEDERAL BUREAU OF INVESTIGATION
UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
JOHN EDGAR HOOVER, DIRECTOR
TABLE OF CONTENTS
THE LAW 1
FEDERAL CONSTITUTION AND STATUTORY LAW ON
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, RIOT, AND REBELLION 2
STATE CONSTITUTION AND LAW POLICE POWERS IN
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE, RIOTJ AND REBELLION 11
AN ANALYSIS 15
L CONTRIBUTING FACTORS LEADING TO CIVIL DISORDER 16
H. CROWDS AND THEIR BEHAVIOR 17
A. Nature of Crowds jg
B. Basic Behavior Patterns in Mobs 19
C. The People Involved 21
D. Behavior Dynamics in Unruly Crowds 22
HI. THE RIOT PATTERN 24
A. The Pattern of Preparation 24
B. The Role of Rumor 25
CHARACTERISTICS OF A RIOT 27
I. TYPES OF VIOLENCE 28
II. LEADERSHIP 30
HI. TACTICS EMPLOYED 31
THE POLICE ROLE IN PREVENTING RIOTS 35
I. INTRODUCTION 36
IL UNIFORM, EFFICIENT LAW ENFORCEMENT 37
m. TRAINING PROGRAM FOR INDIVIDUAL OFFICERS 40
IV. POLICE-COMMUNITY RELATIONS 41
A. Internal Organization 42
B. Training Programs 43
C. Liaison with the Community 43
D. Complaint Procedures 44
E. Public Relations and Liaison with News Media 45
F. School Programs and Activities 46
G. Liaison with City and County Officials and Agencies 46
H. Support Programs 46
CROWD AND DEMONSTRATION CONTROL 47
L CROWD CONTROL 48
A. Specific Problems 50
B. Crowd Control Plan 51
IL CONTROL OF DEMONSTRATIONS 52
A. Lawful Demonstrations 53
B. Unlawful Acts by Demonstrators 55
PLANNING AND ORGANIZING FOR RIOT CONTROL OPERATIONS 59
I. INTRODUCTION 60
EL INTELLIGENCE PLANNING 60
A. Sources of Intelligence 60
B. Intelligence Evaluation 61
C. Supplimental Information 61
EL LOGISTICS PLANNING 62
A. Transportation 62
B. Emergency Facilities 62
C. Field Locations and Services 62
D. Communications 63
E. Clothing and Equipment 63
F. Operational Equipment 63
G. Chemicals 64
IV. OPERATIONS PLANNING 65
A. Aircraft 66
B. Press Relations 66
C. Liaison 67
D. Manpower 67
E. Chain of Command 67
F. Proclamations 68
G. Command Posts 68
V. ORGANIZATION AND TRAINING 68
A. Organization 68
B. Training 70
VI. THE CITY PLAN 71
A. Chain of Command 72
B. Command Posts 72
C. Personnel 72
D. Communications 73
E. Supplies and Equipment 73
F. Control of Business 73
G. Apprehension, Identification, and Detention 74
H. Liaison 74
I. Practical Considerations 74
VH. ASSISTANCE FROM OTHER MUNICIPAL, COUNTY, AND
STATE RESOURCES 76
VHL FEDERAL AID 78
POLICE OPERATIONS DURING A RIOT 81
I. INTRODUCTION 82
II. RIOT CONTROL PRINCIPLES 82
A. Principle of the Objective 82
B. Principle of the Offensive 82
C. Principle of Mass 83
D. Principle of Economy of Force 83
E. Principle of Maneuver 83
F. Principle of Unity of Command 83
G. Principle of Security 83
H. Principle of Surprise 84
I. Principle of Simplicity 84
HI. CONTAINING AND ISOLATING THE AREA 84
A. Patrols 84
B. Roadblocks and Barricades 85
C. Search and Seizure 85
D. Curfews 85
E. Police Security Measures 86
IV. QUELLING THE RIOT 86
A. Types of Riots 86
B. Show of Force 87
C. Remove Leaders 87
D. Use of Photography 88
E. Follow-up Measures 88
V. EMPLOYMENT AND APPLICATION OF FORCE 89
A. Firearms 89
B. Bayonets 90
C. Fire Hoses 90
D. Dogs 90
E. Horses 91
F. Batons 91
G. Chemical Agents 91
VL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT 92
VH. RIOT CONTROL FORMATIONS 92
A. Squad 93
B. Platoon 93
C. Formations 93
D. Vehicles 94
VIE. COUNTERMEASURE OPERATIONS 94
A. Downtown 94
B. Residential Areas 95
C. Barricades 95
D. Looting 95
E. Vital Buildings 95
F. Teamwork 95
G. Post Riot Control 96
NATIONAL GUARD ASSISTANCE TO LOCAL AUTHORITIES 97
APPLICATION FOR STATE AID 10 i
NATIONAL GUARD UNITS 10 2
RELEASE OF NATIONAL GUARD 103
LEAA GRANT 035
Similar manuals have been pro-
duced under this grant for pro-
secuting attorney training in
Minnesota, Ohio, Illinois and
the law of
arrest;! search and
seizure in Iowa
211 EAST CHICAGO AVENU E / CHICAGO, ILLINOIS
SEARCHES WITHOUT WARRANT PAGE
A. SEARCH INCIDENT TO ARREST 2
SCOPE OF SEARCH 3
TIMELINESS OF SEARCH 5
WHAT MAY BE SEIZED 8
VALID ARREST 14
B. SEARCH OF VEHICLES 25
THE CARROLL RULE 34
SEARCH WARRANTS 36
C. CONSENT SEARCHES 37
D. EMERGENCY SEARCHES 43
SEARCHES UNDER WARRANT
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS 45
REQUISITES OF A VALID SEARCH WARRANT
A. ISSUANCE OF THE WARRANT 47
B. OBJECTS FOR WHICH SEARCH WARRANTS
MAY BE ISSUED 49
C. PROBABLE CAUSE 50
D. THE OATH OR AFFIRMATION 57
E. THE DESCRIPTION 59
EXECUTING THE WARRANT. 62
A. MATERIAL WITHIN THE BODY 66
B. DERIVATIVE USE OF ILLEGAL SEIZURE: FRUITS . . 71
C. THE "SILVER PLATTER" RULE 72
D. ADMINISTRATIVE SEARCHES 72
E. WIRETAPPING AND EAVESDROPPING 75
F. ENTRAPMENT 83
G. PROCEDURAL ASPECTS 84
LEAA GRANT 022
THE POLICE HELICOPTER
AND FLIGHT SYLLABUS
LOS ANGELES COUNTY SHERIFF'S DEPARTMENT
PETER J. PITCHESS, SHERIFF